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#126: Hayes Wins Hotly Disputed 1876 Election

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President Rutherford Hayes
President Rutherford Hayes

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

President Ulysses Grant served two terms in office. His administration was marked by corruption. The president himself was not linked directly to any of the incidents. But he was friends with dishonest members of the cabinet and Congress.

尤利塞斯·格兰特总统的两届任期内,政府官员腐败盛行。格兰特本人虽然没有直接参与,但是内阁和国会里很多腐败官员都跟他关系密切。

This week in our series, Jack Weitzel and Tony Riggs tell how Grant's problems affected the Republican Party in the presidential election of eighteen seventy-six.

JACK WEITZEL: The American people were very disappointed with President Grant. He was the military hero of the Civil War. He had led the Union army of the North to victory over the Confederate army of the South. His popularity dropped, however, during his presidency.

美国民众对格兰特深感失望。格兰特是南北战争期间的战斗英雄,领导北方军打败了南方军,但是他的民众支持率在他担任总统期间显著下跌。

Grant was not an effective political leader. Nor was he able to control the men around him. The American people also were worried about the nation's economic situation. A serious depression had begun during Grant's second term. Many people were out of work. They blamed the ruling Republican Party.

格兰特绝非优秀的政治领袖,他无法控制自己身边的人。与此同时,国家的经济形势也让民众忧心忡忡。格兰特第二届任期内,美国陷入严重的经济衰退,失业人数众多,大家把责任归咎于执政的共和党。

TONY RIGGS: The state and congressional elections of eighteen seventy-four were an important turning point. Republicans were shocked by the results. For the first time in eighteen years, the Democratic Party won control of the House of Representatives. They won one hundred sixty-nine seats. The Republicans won one hundred nine.

1874年的州和国会选举是一个重要的转折点。选举结果让共和党人很吃惊,十八年来,民主党人第一次夺得了国会众议院的控制权,民主党人占有169个席位,而共和党人只有109个席位。

Democrats also won control of twenty-three of the thirty-five state governments. These included several northern states, where people were tired of Republican rule.

此外,在35个州政府当中,民主党人还掌握了23个州政府的控制权,其中包括几个北方州,因为当地人已经厌倦了共和党的统治。

JACK WEITZEL: Important changes also were made in the South. Democrats won control of southern state governments from radical Republicans.

南方也发生了重大变化。民主党人从激进派共和党人手中夺走了南方一些州政府的控制权。

One of these states was Mississippi. White Democrats there began organizing groups called White Leagues. These groups wanted to prevent blacks from voting for radical Republicans. They started riots, in which many blacks were killed. They also used economic power against blacks.

其中一个是密西西比州。那里的民主党白人组建了名叫"白人联盟"的团体,目的是防止黑人投票支持激进派共和党人。他们举行暴动,打死不少黑人,并利用经济优势压制黑人。

These efforts succeeded. Most blacks were too afraid to vote. The Democrats took control of both the Mississippi legislature and the governor's office. Similar actions, with similar results, took place in other southern states.

他们的努力达到了预期效果,大多数黑人都不敢去投票,民主党人因此夺取了密西西比州议会和州长办公室的控制权。美国南部其他州的白人也采取类似行动,并取得了类似的成效。

(MUSIC)

TONY RIGGS: As Grant's second term came to an end, he began to talk about the possibility of another four years in the White House. Republican politicians were firmly opposed. They blamed Grant for the party's defeats in state and congressional elections. Grant had to give up any hope of a third term.

格兰特第二届任期结束前,他提出愿意再干四年,但遭到共和党政界人士的坚决反对。他们认为共和党在州和国会选举中的失败都是格兰特的错。格兰特没办法,只好放弃连任三届的指望。

Congressman James Blaine seemed to have the best chance of winning the Republican presidential nomination in eighteen seventy-six.

国会众议员詹姆斯·布赖恩似乎是1876年总统大选共和党最有可能获得提名的候选人。

Blaine had been Speaker of the House of Representatives when the Republicans controlled Congress. He was powerful, and he had many supporters. Some Republican leaders, however, questioned his honesty. Blaine fought this criticism with an emotional speech in Congress.

布赖恩曾在共和党控制的国会里担任众议院议长,权力很大,也有很多支持者。不过,有些共和党领袖对他的诚信表示怀疑。布赖恩为此在国会里激动地发表讲话,对自己受到的批评提出反驳。

JACK WEITZEL: When the Republican Party convention opened in Cincinnati, Ohio, Blaine was the leading candidate for the presidential nomination. He expected to win the first day.

共和党在俄亥俄州辛辛那提召开全国代表大会,布赖恩是呼声最高的提名候选人,他本以为自己第一天就能获得提名。

There was a wild demonstration of support when his name was put before the convention. But before the voting could begin, the lights went out. Some delegates believed Blaine's opponents were responsible. These opponents worked all night to get other delegates to change their support from Blaine to another candidate. When the delegates voted the next morning, Blaine did not have enough votes to win the nomination.

大会宣布布赖恩名字时,与会代表欢声雷动,但投票开始前,突然停电了。一些代表觉得是布赖恩的反对者做了手脚。这些反对布赖恩的人整个晚上马不停蹄地劝说其他与会代表把票投给别的候选人。第二天早上第一次正式投票,布赖恩没能得到提名需要的选票数量。

TONY RIGGS: However, after six ballots, Blaine appeared ready to win. To stop him, his opponents needed to unite behind another candidate. One of these candidates was Rutherford Hayes, the governor of Ohio. Hayes had fewer enemies than the other candidates. So he became the compromise candidate for delegates hoping to stop Blaine.

经过六轮投票,布赖恩眼看要赢了。要阻止他,布赖恩的反对者就要联合起来,找到一个大家共同支持的候选人。人选之一是俄亥俄州州长拉瑟福德·海斯。海斯跟其他候选人比,政敌相对较少,因此成了不希望看到布赖恩当选的那些大会代表的妥协人选。

On the seventh ballot of the convention, Rutherford Hayes captured the Republican nomination.

海斯在大会代表第七次投票中,被推举为共和党总统候选人。

(MUSIC)

Samuel Tilden
Samuel Tilden

JACK WEITZEL: The Democratic Party met in St. Louis, Missouri. Delegates nominated Samuel Tilden, the governor of New York. Tilden had led the fight to end dishonesty in government in New York state. He had ousted a group called the Tweed Ring, which controlled New York City politics for years. Democrats said he was the man to end dishonesty in government in Washington.

与此同时,民主党代表大会在密苏里州的圣路易斯召开。大会代表推举纽约州州长塞缪尔·蒂尔登为民主党的总统候选人。蒂尔登曾带头打击纽约州政府内部的腐败现象,赶走了多年来一直控制纽约市政坛、被称为特威德集团的团伙。民主党人说,蒂尔登是消除华盛顿腐败的最佳人选。

Republicans campaigned by denouncing the Democratic Party. They called it the party of southern rebellion and treason. Instead, they said, vote for the Republican Party, the party that had saved the Union.

共和党人把竞选矛头直指民主党,指责民主党是南方反叛的政党,呼吁选民投票支持共和党,支持挽救了联邦的完整的共和党。

Democrats campaigned by attacking Republican dishonesty. They blamed Republicans for the nation's economic problems. And they promised better times for everyone if their candidate was elected.

民主党人在竞选期间指责共和党人不正派,说国家的经济困境都是共和党人一手造成的。民主党人保证说,如果民主党候选人当选,一定会让大家过上好日子。

TONY RIGGS: The presidential election of eighteen seventy-six was very close. By midnight of Election Day, the results seemed to show that Democrat Samuel Tilden was the winner. Republican Rutherford Hayes went to bed believing he had lost.

美国1876年总统大选十分激烈。大选当天午夜,从初步计票结果看,民主党人蒂尔登似乎胜券在握,共和党候选人海斯上床休息时以为自己输定了。

However, the Republicans quickly saw that the electoral votes of three southern states could decide the winner.

然而,共和党人很快发现,鹿死谁手最后完全取决于南方三个州的选举人票。

In the American presidential system, whoever wins the most popular votes in a state usually gets all the electoral votes of that state. In eighteen seventy-six, the electoral votes of three states -- Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina -- were enough to give the White House to one candidate or the other.

根据美国的选举制度,谁赢得一个州的多数选民票,就能得到这个州的所有选举人票。1876年总统大选中,佛罗里达、路易斯安那和南卡罗来纳州的选举人票,足以决定谁会入主白宫。

JACK WEITZEL: Each party claimed victory in these three states. Each accused the other of stealing votes and counting ballots unfairly. Finally, the two parties agreed to form an electoral committee to decide who had won the disputed votes.

民主、共和两党都说自己赢得了这三个州的胜利,都指责对方有舞弊行为。最后,双方同意成立一个选举委员会,裁决选票之争。

The committee was supposed to include seven Republicans, seven Democrats, and one Independent. But before it could meet, the Independent member resigned. A Republican took his place. The Republicans had a majority.

委员会原计划包括七名民主党人、七名共和党人,外加一名独立党派代表。可还没开会,独立党派的代表就退出了,由一名共和党人取而代之,共和党因此以八比七的优势占据了委员会的多数。

TONY RIGGS: The committee first debated the disputed votes of Florida. After much discussion, the eight Republicans on the committee voted to accept the votes of Florida's Republican electors. They rejected a proposal to investigate the way the votes were counted in the state. They said there was not enough time for a full investigation.

选举委员会首先讨论佛罗里达的问题。经过深入讨论,八名共和党人投票支持把佛罗里达的选举人票给共和党,驳回了民主党人提出的调查计票方式的建议,理由是没有足够时间全面调查。

The same thing happened with the disputed votes of Louisiana and South Carolina. The Republicans on the committee voted to count the Republican electors. The Democrats voted to count the democratic electors. In each case, the Republicans won, by a vote of eight to seven.

JACK WEITZEL: As a result, Rutherford Hayes gained the electoral votes of all three states. This gave him enough to win the election.

路易斯安那州和南卡罗来纳州结果也一样。民主党人和共和党人针锋相对,但最后都因为七比八,一票之差败下阵来,让共和党总统候选人海斯得到了这三个州的选举人票,当选总统。

Democrats were furious. Democrats in many states began organizing party militia groups. They said they would fight, if necessary, to prevent the Republicans from stealing the presidency.

民主党人气炸了肺,很多州的民主党人开始组建民兵,表示在必要情况下,他们宁愿上战场,也不愿看着共和党人就这样把总统一职偷走。

The situation seemed very tense and dangerous. Many feared the start of another civil war. Negotiations finally provided a peaceful solution.

TONY RIGGS: Representatives of the two parties met secretly to work out a compromise.

眼见局势严峻,很多人担心内战会再次爆发。民主、共和两党代表秘密会见,最终达成了一项妥协方案。

The Democrats agreed to permit Republican Rutherford Hayes to be sworn-in as President. In return, Hayes agreed to end federal support of radical Republican governments in the south. He promised to name southerners to his cabinet and other important jobs. And he said he would provide more federal aid for schools and railroads in the south. As part of the agreement, Hayes promised not to act aggressively to support the civil rights of black southerners.

根据方案,民主党人同意接受海斯就任总统,做为回报,海斯同意停止联邦政府对南方激进派共和党人控制下的政府的支持。海斯还保证要任命南方人进入内阁,担任要职,向南方提供联邦援助,整修学校,修筑铁路,并保证不会积极支持南方黑人的民权运动。

JACK WEITZEL: Hayes' opponent, Democrat Samuel Tilden, did not oppose the agreement. Tilden was an old man. His health was poor. He agreed that four years of Rutherford Hayes would be better than four years of civil war.

海斯的竞选对手蒂尔登没有提出异议。蒂尔登年事已高,身体又不好。他认为,让海斯当四年总统,总比打四年内战要强。

So it was that Rutherford Hayes became the nineteenth president of the United States. He would surprise a lot of people after he reached the White House. That will be our story next week.

就这样,海斯当选了美国第19任总统。

(MUSIC)

BARBARA KLEIN: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Jack Weitzel and Tony Riggs. Our programs can be found online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and historical images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #126 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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