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#130: Indian Wars, Part 1

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BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

The United States began to expand west during the middle eighteen hundreds. People settled in the great open areas of the Dakotas, Utah, Wyoming, and California. The movement forced the nation to deal with great tribes of Native American Indians. The Indians had lived in the western territories for hundreds of years.

19世纪中期,美国开始向西部拓殖。人们迁居到达科他、犹他、怀俄明和加利福尼亚等广袤人稀之地。西进运动带来了一个必然的问题,就是如何与大量土著印第安人部落打交道。印第安人已经在西部地区生活了数百年。

Settlers and cattle ranchers pushed the Indians out of their homelands. The result was a series of wars between the tribes and the federal government.

但是,不断涌来的新移民和牧场主把他们赶出了家园。结果,印第安部落与联邦政府之间暴发了一系列冲突。

This week in our series, Steve Ember and Sarah Long tell about some of these conflicts.

STEVE EMBER: At first, the United States government had just one policy to deal with the Indians. It was brutal. Whenever white men wanted Indian land, the tribes were pushed farther west. If the Indians protested, or tried to defend their land, they were destroyed with crushing force.

起初,美国政府对印第安人只有一个非常残忍的政策。那就是:无论白人什么时候需要印第安人的土地,印第安部落就得向西迁移,如果他们反抗或试图保护自己的土地,就会被武力消灭。

By the middle eighteen-hundreds, almost all the eastern Indians had been moved west of the Mississippi River. They were given land in Indian territory in what is now the state of Oklahoma. The government described these Indians as "civilized." This meant they were too weak to cause more trouble. Many agreed to follow the ways of the white men.

到十九世纪中期,美国东部几乎所有的印第安人都被赶到了密西西比河以西的地方。政府在现在的俄克拉荷马州内划出一些土地给印第安人,并把这些印第安人称为"良民"。意思是,这些印第安人已经软弱听话,不会再惹麻烦了。很多人这样的"良民"也接受了白人的生活方式。

SARAH LONG: The Indians of the western grasslands were different. They refused to give up their way of life. These plains Indians were always on the move, because they hunted buffalo -- the American bison. They followed great groups of the animals across the grassy plains. At that time, there were millions of these animals in the American west.

然而,西部平原上的印第安人可不同。他们拒绝放弃自己固有的生活方式。这些人靠狩猎美洲野牛为生,所以总要不断迁移。他们在广袤的草原上逐野牛群而居。当时,美国西部有数百万头野牛。

The Indians of the plains depended on the buffalo for almost everything they needed. Many of them were fierce fighters. The plains Indians did not want white men crossing their hunting lands. They often tried to destroy the wagon trains carrying settlers to California and Oregon.

印第安人几乎从野牛身上获得生活所需的一切。许多印第安人骁勇善战。这些生活在平原上的印第安人不想让白人经过他们的狩猎地区,他们经常试图捣毁那些载着白人向加利福尼亚和俄勒冈迁移的大篷车。

STEVE EMBER: The United States army was given the job of keeping peace. Soldiers were sent to build roads and forts in the western plains. They tried to protect the wagon trains from Indian attacks. They tried to keep white settlers from invading Indian lands. There were many fights between the soldiers and the plains Indians. The soldiers had more powerful weapons. They usually won.

美国军队奉命维持地方和平。军方派士兵在西部平原上修建道路和堡垒,设法保护西进马车不受印第安人的攻击,并设法让白人不侵犯印第安人的土地。士兵和印第安人之间多次交战。士兵们的武器装备更精良,因此他们通常获胜。

SARAH LONG: Some plains Indians tried to live peacefully with the white men. One such group was part of the Sioux tribe, called Santee Sioux. It was the largest and most powerful group in the west.

有些印第安人想与白人和平共处。苏族部落的一个分支桑蒂.苏就是这样。这个部落是西部大平原人最多、最强大的印第安人部落。

The Santee Sioux lived along the northeastern edge of the Great Plains in what is now the state of Minnesota. They signed treaties with the government giving up ninety percent of their land. The Santee agreed to live in a small area. In exchange, the United States agreed to make yearly payments to the tribe. This made it possible for the Indians to buy food and other things from white traders.

桑蒂.苏人居住在大平原的东北边缘,也就是现在的明尼苏达州。他们和政府签署了一系列协议,同意放弃他们所拥有的90%的土地,只居住在一块很小的地方。作为交换,美国政府同意每年向桑蒂.苏人付钱。这样,这些印第安人就有钱从白人商人那里购买食物和其它物品。

STEVE EMBER: Trouble started, however, in the summer of eighteen sixty-two. The government was late giving the Indians their yearly payment. As a result, the Indians lacked the money to buy food. The white traders refused to give the Indians credit to buy food. One trader said: "If they are hungry, let them eat grass."

但是,1862年夏天,问题出现了。联邦政府没能按时向印第安人付款,结果,印第安人就没钱买食品了。白人商人拒绝印第安人赊帐,其中有一个商人甚至说:"如果他们饿了,就让他们吃草去吧。"

The Indians were hungry. Soon, their hunger turned to anger. Finally, the local Indian chief called his men together. He gave the orders for war.

印第安人的确非常饥饿,而饥饿很快变成了愤怒。最后,当地的印第安人首领把族人叫到一起,下令向白人开战。

Early the next morning, the tribe attacked the trading stores. Most of the traders were killed, including the man who had insulted the Indians. He was found with his mouth filled with grass.

第二天清晨,部落袭击了货栈,大部分商人被杀,包括那位侮辱印第安人的商人,他的嘴里还被塞满了草。

The governor of Minnesota sent a force of state soldiers to stop the Indian revolt. The soldiers had artillery. They killed several hundred Indians in battle. They hanged several others. Soon, the revolt was over.

明尼苏达州州长派军队带上大炮去制止印第安人的起义。军人们打死了数百名印第安人,还绞死了一些人。起义很快就被镇压下去了。

SARAH LONG: Trouble came next to parts of Colorado and Wyoming. This is where the Sioux Indians and the Cheyenne Indians lived. The chief of the Lakota Sioux tribe was named Red Cloud. The Indians fought bitterly to keep white men out of their hunting grounds. After two years of fighting, with many deaths on both sides, the government decided the struggle was too costly. It asked for peace.

在科罗拉多和怀俄明的一些地方,印第安人与政府的矛盾也陆续产生。生活在那里的印第安人是苏族和夏延族。苏族拉科塔分支的印第安人首领叫红云。这里的印第安人为了不让白人进入他们的狩猎地区而浴血奋战。经过两年的交战,双方都有大量伤亡。联邦政府认为这样打代价实在太大,因此提出和解。

The Sioux and the Cheyenne agreed. They were given a large area of land north of Wyoming in the Dakota territory. They also were given the right to use their old hunting lands farther north. The government agreed to close a road used by whites to cross the hunting grounds. And all soldiers were withdrawn from Sioux country.

苏族和夏延族人接受了这一提议。于是,政府把位于怀俄明以北的达科他地区的大片土地划给印第安人,还允许印第安人到更远的北方去打猎。政府还同意关闭一条白人穿越印第安人狩猎地区时用的道路。所有的军人也都从苏族印第安人居住区撤走。

STEVE EMBER: The war ended and peace came to the Sioux and the Cheyenne. With peace came a new United States policy toward other Indians of the West. The government decided to put aside an area of land for each tribe. The land was called a "reservation." Each tribe would live on its own reservation.

战争结束,苏族和夏延族人得到了和平。美国政府也随即出台了一项针对西部其他印第安人的政策。政府决定,给每一个印第安部落都划定一片土地,并将其称为"印第安人保留地"。每个印第安人部落都居住在属于自己的保留地内。

Most of the reservations were in Indian territory in what is now the state of Oklahoma. Other reservations were in Dakota near the land of the Sioux.

绝大多数印第安人保留地位于现在的俄克拉荷马州的印第安人居住区,还有一些位于苏族印第安人居住区附近的达科他地区。

SARAH LONG: The government believed it would cost less money and fewer lives to keep Indians on reservations. The Indians would be away from possible trouble with white settlers. Instead of moving freely over the plains to hunt buffalo, the Indians would live in one place. They would receive food and money from the government.

联邦政府认为,让印第安人住在保留地内,可以为政府省钱,也不必在战争中消耗人力。而且,印第安人可能就不会再和白人找麻烦了。根据新的政策,印第安人将不再自由地到处去打野牛,而是生活在一个固定的地方,从政府那里获得食品和钱。

Officials came from Washington to explain this new policy to the Indians. A big meeting was held. Chiefs representing many tribes attended. The chiefs spoke, one after another, to the government officials.

华盛顿的联邦政府派官员召开大会,向印第安人解释这个新政策。许多印第安人部落的首领出席了会议。这些首领们一个接一个向政府官员发表了他们的想法。

STEVE EMBER: All of the chiefs said they, too, wished to live in peace with the white men. But many questioned the decision to move to reservations. One who did so was Chief Ten Bears of the Comanche tribe. He said:

所有的部落首领都说,他们也希望与白人和平相处,但他们许多人质疑让印第安人居住在保留地内的决定。科曼切族的首领唐·比尔斯这样说道:

"There are things which you have said to me that I do not like. You said you wanted to put us on a reservation. You said you would build houses for us. I do not want your houses. I was born on the plains where the wind blows free, and there is nothing to break the light of the sun. I was born where everything breathed a free breath. I want to die there...not within walls."

"你们说的一些事,我不喜欢。你们说,想让我们住进一块保留地,还要为我们盖房。我不想要你们的房子。我出生在大平原上,那里风自由吹拂,没有任何东西可以阻挡太阳的光辉。我出生在一个万物都自由的地方,我也想死在那里,而不是死在四面墙中间。"

SARAH LONG: So the government and the Indians reached a compromise. The tribes were given reservations in Indian territory. But they were also given permission to hunt buffalo in a wide area south of the reservations. The Indians agreed to give up all their old lands. They agreed to live in peace on the reservations.

政府与印第安人达成了妥协。政府给印第安人划定保留地,但也允许印第安人在保留地以南的大片野地里捕杀野牛。印第安人同意放弃他们原有的所有土地,同意在保留地里平静地生活。

In exchange, the United States promised to give the Indians all the food, clothing, and other things they needed. It also promised to give them schools and medical care.

作为交换,政府承诺给印第安人提供他们所需的全部食品、衣服和其它东西,还答应给印第安人建学校和医院。

STEVE EMBER: The Indians were not happy with this agreement. They did not want to give up their old ways of living. However, they saw they had no choice. The government was too strong.

印第安人对这份协议并不满意,他们不想放弃原有的生活方式。然而,他们意识到,他们别无选择,因为政府实在是太强大了。

They waited weeks, then months, for help to move to the new reservations. They could not understand the delay in carrying out the agreement. The delay was in Washington, D.C. Congress could not agree on how much money to spend on the Indians. So the lawmakers refused to approve the agreement. They left the situation unsettled.

印第安人等着政府来帮他们搬到新划定的保留地,可是他们等了几个星期、几个月,却不见人来。他们不明白为什么政府会拖延执行已达成的协议。原来,问题出在华盛顿。国会议员们无法就在印第安人身上花多少钱达成一致。结果,议员们就拒绝批准已达成的协议,而是留下这个问题日后解决。

Again, Indians were forced to watch angrily as white settlers began moving onto lands they had agreed to give up. As the whites moved in, the buffalo and other animals left. The Indians had difficulty finding food.

白人定居者开始进入印第安人已经同意放弃的土地,而印第安人只能忍气吞声看着他们这么做。白人涌入时,野牛和其它动物都跑了,因此,印第安人很难找到食物。

SARAH LONG: Soldiers shared their food with the Indians. It was not enough. Western officials sent urgent messages to Washington asking for supplies for the Indians. No supplies could be sent until Congress approved the money to buy them.

军人把一些食物分给印第安人,但这远远不够。西部地区的政府官员向华盛顿发出紧急救助信,要求华盛顿向印第安人提供生活必需品。但是,由于国会没有批准资金,政府无法给印第安人派送食品。

As before, some of the Indians became angry and refused to wait any longer. Their anger led to new fighting. In the end, it was a fight that failed to win back their land.

和以前一样,一些印第安人愤怒了,拒绝继续等待。他们的愤怒导致了新的冲突。结果,印第安人战败,没有争回他们的土地。

That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Steve Ember and Sarah Long.  Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

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