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#135: Labor Unrest Marks Cleveland's First Term

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A print showing the explosion that started the Haymarket riot in May 1886
A print showing the explosion that started the Haymarket riot in May 1886

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

Grover Cleveland was elected president of the United States in eighteen eighty-four. He was the first Democratic Party candidate to win a presidential election in almost twenty-eight years.

1884年,格罗弗·克利夫兰当选美国总统。他是近28年来第一位赢得总统选举的民主党人。

Grover Cleveland defeated James Blaine, a senator from the Republican Party. The election was very close. Many Republicans did not vote for their own candidate. They voted for Cleveland instead. They believed he was honest and that Blaine was not.

他击败了共和党候选人詹姆士.布莱恩参议员,尽管双方的得票数很接近。许多共和党人没有把选票投给他们自己的候选人,而是投给了克利夫兰。他们认为克利夫兰为人正直,而布莱恩则不够诚实。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe tell us about the presidency of Grover Cleveland.

KAY GALLANT: Cleveland began his administration by announcing that he would reduce waste in the government. He would make government more like business. He said he would support reforms to let ability -- not politics -- decide who would get government jobs.

克利夫兰上任伊始就宣布,他将致力于减少政府的浪费。他将像管理企业那样管理政府。他说,他将支持进行改革,让那些有能力,而不是靠政治关系的人进入政府工作。

Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland

Democratic Party leaders were quick to protest. They explained to Cleveland that the party owed jobs to those who had worked for his victory. Cleveland had to compromise. He permitted about eighty thousand government jobs to be taken from Republicans and given to Democrats. This left twelve thousand jobs. These would be given to people who did the best on government examinations.

民主党领导人马上表示反对,他们向克利夫兰解释说,民主党必须用政府职务来回报那些下大力气帮克利夫兰当选的人。克利夫兰不得不做出妥协。他答应把政府中大约八万名共和党人的工作交给民主党人干。这样,政府还剩下一万两千个工作机会,将交给那些在应聘考试中成绩最好的人。

Cleveland's decision angered Republican reformers who had voted for him. They accused him of surrendering to the leaders of the Democratic Party.

克利夫兰的决定惹怒了那些投票支持他的共和党改革派成员,他们指责他向民主党的领导层投降。

HARRY MONROE: On other issues, however, Cleveland refused to compromise. He opposed government economic aid to any industrial group. He vetoed a bill giving aid to farmers whose crops had failed. And he vetoed another bill giving more money to men who had served as soldiers during America's civil war of the eighteen sixties.

然而,在其它问题上,克利夫兰总统拒绝妥协。他反对政府向任何一个产业组织提供经济援助。他否决了一项对农作物欠收的农民提供补贴的议案,还否决了一项对内战士兵提供更多津贴的议案。

The president also showed his independence by investigating gifts of public land that the government had made to the railroad, wood and cattle industries. He found that many of these land grants were made illegally. He got back much of the land. He opened it to settlers.

克利夫兰总统的独立性还表现在他对政府将公共土地赠与铁路、木材和养牛业展开调查。他发现,许多拨地是违法的。他将大部分这类土地收回,交给定居者开发。

KAY GALLANT: President Cleveland signed into law two bills he believed would improve government. One was the Electoral Count Act. It set new rules for counting the electoral votes of the states. It would prevent future disputes over presidential elections, like the one in eighteen seventy-six.

克利夫兰总统签署了两项他认为有助于改善政府运作的议案。一项是《选举人票计算法》,为统计各州的选举人票制定了新规则,以避免再次发生1876年大选那种计票纠纷。

The other bill changed the list of officials who could become president, if the president and vice president died or were removed from office. First on the list -- after the vice president -- was the secretary of state.

另一项法律是改变当总统或副总统去世或被罢免后接任总统职位的官员的排名次序。根据该法律,在副总统之后接任总统的是国务卿。

Congress changed this law again in nineteen forty-seven. And there have been four amendments since then. Today, the speaker of the House of Representatives would succeed the vice president as president. Then would come the president pro tempore of the Senate. And then, the secretary of state.

美国国会1947年再次修改此法律,此后又四次对法律进行修定。如今,排在副总统之后的依次是国会众议院议长,参议院临时议长,然后是国务卿。

(MUSIC)

HARRY MONROE: Grover Cleveland approved a bill giving the government control over the cost of railroad transportation. The bill was called the Interstate Commerce Act. It limited the amount of money railroads could demand from people who needed to travel or transport their goods.

克利夫兰总统还批准议案,授权政府控制铁路运费。这部法律就是《州际商业法》。该法律限制铁路公司向乘火车出行或以铁路运输货物的人所能收取的运费。

The law established the idea that the government could control industries, when necessary, for the public good.

这个法律确立了这样一个思想,也就是,政府在认为有必要的时候,为了公众的利益可以控制产业行为。

President Cleveland also was concerned about a growing number of labor disputes that took place in the United States in the late eighteen hundreds. He proposed that Congress create a labor committee to help settle the disputes.

克利夫兰总统还非常关注十九世纪后期美国日益增加的劳资矛盾。他建议国会成立劳工委员会来解决这些纠纷。不过,国会没有就总统的这项建议采取行动。

KAY GALLANT: Congress failed to act on this proposal. But its lack of action did not stop the rise of a labor organization that had been formed a few years earlier. The group soon would become the most important labor union in the United States. It was the American Federation of Labor, or A.F.L.

但国会的不作为并没能阻止几年前已经成立的一个劳工组织的兴起,这个劳工组织很快就发展成为美国最重要的工会--美国劳工联合会。

Led by Samuel Gompers, the A.F.L. was different from earlier labor groups. It did not try to put all workers into one union. Instead, it tied together a number of different unions and gave them general leadership.

美国劳工联合会由塞缪尔.古帕斯领导。它和早先成立的一些劳工组织不同,并不要求所有的工人都参加同一个工会组织,相反,它把各个不同的工会联合起来,对它们进行统一领导。

HARRY MONROE: The A.F.L. was different in other ways. It did not oppose the economic system of capitalism. It said only that labor should get more of the earnings of capitalism. The A.F.L. also opposed extremists who used labor protests to change the social system.

美国劳工联合会的独特之处还有,它并不反对资本主义经济体制,只要求劳工在这种体制中获得更多收入。美国劳工联合会还反对那些利用劳工抗议来寻求改变社会制度的激进分子。

What the A.F.L. called for were things workers wanted immediately. Higher wages. A shorter work day. Better working conditions. One of its first demands was an eight-hour work day. This demand led to a number of strikes and protests throughout the country.

美国劳工联合会要求的是工人们迫切需要的东西,比如提高工资,减少工作时间,改善工作条件,等等。最早提出的要求之一是八小时工作制。为了实现这一目标,美国全国爆发了多次罢工和抗议。

KAY GALLANT: The most serious incident took place in Chicago's Haymarket Square.

最严重的抗议发生在芝加哥的干草市场广场。

More than one thousand union supporters went to a meeting there organized by an extremist. They stood calmly and listened to speeches. Just before the meeting ended, someone threw a bomb into a group of policemen. The bomb exploded with a blinding flash. Seven policemen were killed.

当时,一千多名工会支持者参加了由一名激进分子组织的集会,他们静静地站在广场听演讲。就在集会马上就要结束时,有人向警察扔了一枚炸弹。炸弹爆炸,发出巨大的火光,七名警察被炸死。

The other policemen began shooting at the crowd. Some people in the crowd fired back. When it was all over, ten persons had been shot to death. Fifty others were hurt.

其他警察开始朝人群开枪,一些人开枪还击。冲突结束时,有十个人被打死,还有五十人受伤。

The incident set off a wave of fear and anger across the country. The public demanded action against union extremists. The Haymarket Square violence slowed the growth of organized labor in the United States for many years. It would be some time before labor became a powerful force in national events.

这一事件引发了全国性的恐慌和愤怒,人们要求惩治工会的激进分子。在后来的许多年中,干草市场广场的暴力事件使美国工会组织的发展延缓了许多年。很长时间后,工会才成为美国社会中一支强大的力量。

(MUSIC)

HARRY MONROE: In the spring of eighteen eighty-six, President Cleveland announced that he was to be married. The ceremony took place in the White House.

1886年春天,克利夫兰总统宣布他要结婚了。婚礼在白宫举行。

A few months later, President Cleveland and the First Lady went to New York City for the official ceremony welcoming the Statue of Liberty.

几个月后,总统和第一夫人前往纽约市,参加欢迎自由女神像的正式仪式。

The statue was a gift to the people of the United States from the people of France. It represented the alliance between their two countries during America's war for independence from Britain.

自由女神像是法国人民送给美国人民的礼物,它象征着美国独立战争中法美两国结盟的情谊。

The statue was the creation of French artist Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi. He decided to make a statue that would represent freedom -- a Statue of Liberty. He said it should stand on an island in New York harbor. There, he said, it would welcome all who came to America through that gateway.

雕像是法国艺术家巴塞迪的作品。他要创作一尊象征自由的雕像。他说,这尊雕像应该矗立在纽约港的一个岛上,欢迎所有从纽约进入美国的人。

KAY GALLANT: Bartholdi decided to make a copper statue in the image of a woman -- Lady Liberty. High above her head, she would hold a torch of freedom to light the world. The statue's face was the face of Bartholdi's mother.

巴塞迪决定创作一尊女性铜像,即自由女神。她将高举一支照亮世界的自由火炬。巴塞迪按照自己母亲的形像塑造了女神的脸部。

The artist asked French engineer Gustave Eiffel to build a steel support to hold the heavy statue. Eiffel was the man who later built the Eiffel Tower in Paris. The statue was built in France. Then the pieces were sent across the Atlantic Ocean. It was rebuilt in New York.

他请法国工程师埃菲尔为自由女神建造一个铁基座,来支撑这座巨大的雕像。埃菲尔就是建造法国巴黎埃菲尔铁塔的人。自由女神像在法国建造完毕,然后拆开装运,横渡大西洋,在纽约重新组装。

HARRY MONROE: Grover Cleveland and his wife were not the only Americans to attend the Statue of Liberty ceremonies in eighteen eighty-six. Thousands of people crowded onto ships in the harbor to watch the great event. Thousands of others crowded the shorelines around the harbor. Everyone cheered wildly when a signal was given and a huge cloth fell from the statue.

克利夫兰和夫人并不是唯一出席1886年自由女神像揭幕典礼的美国人。成千上万的人聚集在纽约港的大小船只上,观看这一盛事,还有成千上万的人来到港口的海岸上观看揭幕大典。当官员一声令下,巨幅幕布从自由女神像落下时,每一个人都禁不住纵情欢呼。

The Statue of Liberty in 1886
The Statue of Liberty in 1886

Lady Liberty stood holding her torch high for freedom. Under her feet were the broken chains of tyranny. Below the statue was a poem. It called to the poor and oppressed people of the world. It told them to come to America to find a land of hope and freedom.

自由女神矗立在那里,高举象征自由的火炬,她的脚下是断裂的专制铁链。在自由女神下面有一首诗,它召唤世界各地贫穷和受压迫的人们到美国来,寻找希望和自由。

诗中写道:

KAY GALLANT:

Give me your tired, your poor,

把你, 那劳瘁贫贱的流民

your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

那向往自由呼吸,又被无情抛弃

the wretched refuse of your teeming shores.

那拥挤于彼岸悲惨哀吟

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,

那骤雨暴风中翻覆的惊魂,全都给我!

I lift my lamp beside the golden door.

我高举灯盏伫立在金门之旁!

HARRY MONROE: The Statue of Liberty was a great success. It was one of the great engineering wonders of its time. And it filled Americans with pride in their tradition of freedom and openness to people from all lands.

自由女神像是一个巨大的成功,它是当时最伟大的工程奇迹之一。它使美国人为自己追求自由、胸怀天下的传统而感到骄傲。

We will continue our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BARBARA KLEIN:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #135

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