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#147: Occupation of Philippines Makes US a Major Power in the Far East

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The Battle of Manila in 1899 help push public opinion in America toward taking possession of the Philippines
The Battle of Manila in 1899 help push public opinion in America toward taking possession of the Philippines

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

The war between the United States and Spain in eighteen ninety-eight was one of the shortest in American history. The fighting lasted about three months.

1898年美国与西班牙之间的战争是美国历史上持续时间最短的战争之一。交战大约只持续了三个月。

Yet that short war led to long-term changes for America. Victory made the United States an increasingly important world power.

然而,这次短暂的战争却给美国带来了长远的变化。美国的胜利使其成为日益重要的世界强国。

This week in our series, Larry West and Shep O'Neal tell about those developments.

本周,我们就为您讲述美西战争后美国历史上出现的新动向。

LARRY WEST: The United States received several of Spain's island colonies as part of the peace agreement. The most important was the Philippines.

根据美国与西班牙签订的和平协议,美国得到了原属西班牙的几个殖民地岛屿,其中最重要的就是菲律宾。

Many Americans thought the United States should not have overseas territories. But President William McKinley thought the Philippines were unprepared for independence. He decided to keep the islands and prepare the people for self-government in the future.

当时许多美国人认为,美国不应该拥有海外领地,但美国总统麦金利认为,菲律宾人还没有做好独立自治的准备,因此他决定占领菲律宾,再帮助那里的人民为将来自治作准备。

A Filipino nationalist group led by Emilio Aguinaldo rejected American control. Aguinaldo declared the formation of a Philippine republic. And he started a guerrilla war against the occupying forces.

一支由埃米利奥.阿奎纳多领导的菲律宾民族主义力量反对美国的占领。阿奎纳多宣布成立菲律宾共和国,并且开始发动针对美国占领军的游击战。

SHEP O'NEAL: The rebellion in the Philippines became a major issue in America's presidential election of nineteen hundred.

菲律宾起义成了美国1900年总统大选的重要议题。

The Republican Party renominated William McKinley as president. And it nominated a hero of the Spanish-American War, New York Governor Theodore Roosevelt, as vice president. The Democratic Party, for the second time, nominated Congressman William Jennings Bryan as president. It nominated a former vice president, Adlai Stevenson, as vice president again.

共和党提名现任总统麦金利竞选连任,并提名美西战争中的英雄、纽约州州长西奥多.罗斯福为副总统候选人。民主党再次提名国会众议员布莱恩为总统候选人,并提名前副总统阿德莱.史蒂文森为副总统候选人。

LARRY WEST: William Jennings Bryan campaigned against the American takeover of the Philippines. He received support from a new group, the Anti-Imperialist League. Members included leading American politicians, businessmen, and writers.

布莱恩的竞选主题是反对美国占领菲律宾。为此,他得到了新成立的"反帝国主义联盟"的支持。该组织成员包括美国的政商名流和知名作家。

President McKinley did not campaign much. He let vice presidential candidate Theodore Roosevelt do it. Roosevelt spoke of America's success as a new economic and political power in the world. He said the Republican Party was responsible.

现任总统麦金利并没有参加什么竞选活动,他把这些工作交给了副总统候选人西奥多.罗斯福。罗斯福说,作为世界上一个新的经济和政治大国,美国已经取得了成功。对此,共和党功不可没。

The majority of voters liked what Roosevelt said. They elected the Republican candidates.

绝大多数选民赞同罗斯福的观点,于是在选举中,他们选择了共和党候选人。

SHEP O'NEAL: The Republican victory destroyed the hopes of many nationalists in the Philippines. With William McKinley in the White House again, they saw little chance of gaining independence. Nationalist leader Emilio Aguinaldo, however, refused to surrender. As long as he remained free, the guerrilla war would continue.

共和党在总统大选中获胜打破了许多菲律宾民族主义者的希望。随着麦金利再次入主白宫,他们已经看不到菲律宾独立的机会了。然而,他们的领导人埃米利奥.阿奎纳多拒绝投降,只要他还自由,游击战就继续打下去。

For months, American forces tried without success to find him. Finally, with the help of a tribe of Filipino mercenary soldiers called the Maccabebe Scouts, they captured him. Aguinaldo signed an agreement to support the United States.

美军一连几个月想把他逮起来,但都没有成功。最后,在一支叫马加比比·斯考特的菲律宾部落雇佣兵的帮助下,美军终于抓到了阿奎纳多。阿奎纳多在支持美国的协议上签了字。

With this agreement, the rebellion ended on the island of Luzon. But it continued for more than a year in the southern Philippines. Hostilities ended officially on July fourth, nineteen-oh-two.

根据这项协议,民族主义队伍停止了吕宋岛上的起义。但在菲律宾南部,起义又持续了一年多。最终,在1902年7月4日,菲律宾反抗美国占领的武装斗争正式宣告结束。

LARRY WEST: American occupation of the Philippines made the United States a major power in the Far East. As such, it began to develop new policies toward Asia. Especially a new policy toward China.

占领菲律宾使美国确立了在远东地区的强大地位。美国因此开始制定新的亚洲政策,特别是针对中国的新政策。

Americans had been trading with China for years, but not heavily. As the American economy grew, however, businessmen saw China -- with a population of four hundred million people -- as a great market for American products.

多年来,美国一直与中国进行贸易往来,但贸易额并不大。随着美国经济的发展,美国商人意识到,中国这个拥有四亿人口的大国对美国商品来说是一个巨大的市场。

Other countries were interested in this market, too. Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia all claimed special rights in parts of China. They began to divide the country into areas called spheres of influence. It seemed these areas could become foreign colonies. Then the United States would be cut off from trading directly with China.

不过,其它国家也垂涎这个市场。英国、法国、德国、日本和俄罗斯都在中国获得了特殊利益,它们开始在中国瓜分势力范围。如果势力范围变成殖民地,美国与中国的直接贸易就将被切断。

To prevent that from happening, American Secretary of State John Hay proposed what became known as the "Open Door" policy.

为了避免出现这种情况,美国国务卿约翰.海伊提出了著名的"门户开放"政策。

SHEP O'NEAL: Secretary Hay asked the nations involved to agree to equal trading rights for all countries in all parts of China. No nation, he said, should interfere with the rights or powers of any other nation in China.

他要求所有有关国家同意,各国在中国各处有平等的贸易权。海伊说,任何国家都不能干涉别国在中国的利益或权利。

No one welcomed the proposal. But no one rejected it, either. Most of the nations involved said they agreed with the idea. But they said they could not approve it unless everyone else did.

没有一个国家欢迎这项政策,但也没有一个国家明确反对。大多数有关国家表示,它们同意美国的想法,但不能批准这一政策,除非其它所有国家都批准。

Secretary Hay refused to wait for them to act. So in May, nineteen hundred, he announced that all the nations involved had given their approval to the "Open Door" policy.

海伊不愿坐等这些国家采取行动,于是在1900年5月宣布,所有在中国的国家都已经批准了他的"门户开放"政策。

The new policy was tested very soon. Within a month of Hay's announcement, violence broke out against foreigners in China.

这项新政策很快就受到了考验。在海伊宣布"门户开放"政策后不到一个月,中国爆发了针对所有外国人的暴力活动。

LARRY WEST: The attacks were led by a secret group called Righteous, Harmonious Fists. Foreigners called its members Boxers.

这些袭击由一个名为义和拳的秘密组织领导。外国人把义和团的成员称为"Boxer"。

Boxers hated all foreign influence in China. They organized in areas where foreign influence was strongest. They killed Christian missionaries and Chinese who had accepted the Christian religion. They also destroyed foreign industries, especially railroads.

义和拳痛恨所有在中国的外国势力,他们在外国势力最集中的地方活动,杀死基督教传教士和信基督教的中国人,他们还毁坏外国人建的工业设施,特别是铁路。

The Chinese government in Beijing supported the Boxer Rebellion. It permitted the Boxers to occupy the capital.

北京的满清政府支持义和团运动,允许义和团占领北京。

The rebellion lasted about two months. It ended when an allied force of American, British, French, German and Japanese soldiers reached Beijing and ended the Boxer occupation.

义和团持续了大约两个月,在美国、英国、德国和日本联军攻占北京后,义和团被消灭了。

SHEP O'NEAL: The foreign powers began to negotiate with China on paying for damages. The United States was worried about the results. It believed some of the nations involved would use the Boxer Rebellion as a way to gain more control over Chinese territory.

外国势力开始与中国政府谈判,要求中国政府赔款。美国对谈判结果感到担心。因为美国认为,一些国家会以义和团运动为借口,趁机扩大自己在中国的控制权。

Secretary of State Hay quickly announced America's policy on the issue. The United States, he said, wanted a settlement which would bring peace and safety to China. The settlement must protect China's territorial rights so it would not be divided into foreign colonies.

于是,美国国务卿海伊迅速宣布了美国在此问题上的立场。他说,美国希望给中国带来和平与安全,各方达成的解决办法必须能保护中国的领土主权,它不能被各国瓜分,沦为殖民地。

Britain and Germany agreed. With their help, Secretary Hay got the others to accept money -- not territory -- as payment for damages.

英国和德国对此表示同意。在它们的帮助下,海伊说服其它各国接受赔款,而不是用获得中国领土的方式获得战争赔偿。

The final settlement forced China to pay three hundred thirty-three million dollars. The United States used some of its share to pay for the education of Chinese students in America.

最终各方签定《辛丑条约》,强迫中国政府赔偿3亿3千3百万美元。美国用它所分得的部分赔款作为奖学金,支付赴美中国留学生的学费。

LARRY WEST: The results of the Boxer Rebellion and the Spanish-American War made clear that the new century would have a new world power: the United States. And this new power had a president with the political skills to do the job: William McKinley.

中国义和团起义和美西战争的结果都清楚地表明,在新世纪到来之时,世界出现了新的强国,这就是美国,而且美国还有一位拥有娴熟政治技巧的总统,即麦金利总统。

In September, nineteen-oh-one, President McKinley made a major foreign policy speech at the Pan-American Fair in Buffalo, New York. He spoke about the importance and the promise of America's new position in the world.

1901年9月,麦金利总统在纽约州布法罗市举办的泛美博览会上发表重要的外交政策演讲。他谈到了美国新国际地位的重要性和前景。

The next day, President McKinley went to the fair's temple of music. He planned to spend several hours meeting the public and shaking hands.

第二天,他出席博览会的音乐会,打算花几个小时与公众会面,同大家握手。

SHEP O'NEAL: A young man waited in line to see him. When the young man stepped in front of McKinley, McKinley reached out to shake his hand. Two shots rang out from a gun the man had hidden under a cloth. One of the bullets struck McKinley in the stomach.

有个年轻男子排队等待总统的接见。当他站在麦金利总统面前时,麦金利伸出手,要和他握手。就在此时,他从衣服里掏出枪,开了两枪。其中一枪打中了总统的腹部。

The president was taken to an emergency hospital on the fairgrounds. He was not conscious. The bullet had damaged his stomach, pancreas, and one kidney. But doctors did not believe he was in danger of dying.

麦金利被送到博览会所设的紧急医院,那时他已经昏迷了。这颗子弹打伤了他的胃、胰腺和一个肾。但医生们认为,总统并没有生命危险。

LARRY WEST: The man who shot McKinley was Leon Czolgosz. Czolgosz was an anarchist. He believed all rulers were enemies of the people. He believed the people had the right to kill them.

这个向麦金利总统开枪的人叫利昂·乔尔戈什,是个无政府主义者。他认为所有的统治者都是人民的敌人,人民有权杀死这些统治者。

Czolgosz also was mentally ill. He had tried to join several anarchist groups. They refused to accept him, however, because of his mental condition.

他还是一个精神病患者。乔尔戈什曾经想加入几个无政府组织,但都因为有精神病而遭到拒绝。

After shooting President McKinley, Czolgosz explained why he had done it. He said it was not right for one man to receive so much public honor, while he received none.

在向总统开枪后,乔尔戈什解释了他这么做的原因。他说,他自己什么也得不到,但总统一人却获得了这么多公众赞誉,这是不对的。

SHEP O'NEAL: For two days, the president remained in a coma. Then his condition changed. He regained consciousness and was able to talk. He rested and became stronger.

总统昏迷了两天。随后,他的健康状况有所好转,恢复了意识,并可以说话了。他休息了一阵子,身体状况进一步好转。

Then the president's condition changed again. An infection developed in his wound. It spread throughout his body. In another few days, he was dead.

可很快,情况又开始恶化,伤口感染,而且感染漫延到全身。没过几天,麦金利总统就去逝了。

LARRY WEST: Vice President Roosevelt hurried to Buffalo. He went to the house where the president's body lay. Then he went to another house to be sworn in as president. He was forty-two years old -- the youngest man ever to hold the office.

副总统西奥多·罗斯福急忙赶到了布法罗。他先到停放总统遗体的地方吊唁,随后到另一个地方宣誓就任总统。那年他42岁,成为美国历史上最年轻的总统。

Roosevelt declared that the administration would go on as before. "It is my aim," he said, "to continue unbroken the policy of President McKinley for the peace, the prosperity, and the honor of our beloved country."

罗斯福宣布,政府会按步就班地运转。他说:"我的目标是继续执行麦金利总统的政策,实现美国的和平、繁荣和荣耀。"

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Shep O'Neal. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:郑烈波
roosevelt declared that the administration would go on as before.
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