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#151: Roosevelt Exercises US Power Around the World

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Theodore Roosevelt stands by a globe in this 1905 photograph
Theodore Roosevelt stands by a globe in this 1905 photograph

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

Theodore Roosevelt was president of the United States during the early years of the twentieth century. He was a forceful leader. His national policies led to social reforms and federal protection of nature. His foreign policy led to greater American involvement in world events.

西奥多.罗斯福在20世纪的头几年担任美国总统。他是个非常有魄力的领导人。他的对内政策推动美国进行社会改革,推动联邦政府保护自然资源,而他的对外政策则使美国更深入地参与世界事务。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue the story of the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.

KAY GALLANT: In nineteen-oh-three, Panama declared its independence from Colombia. Fifteen days later, Panama and the United States signed a treaty. The treaty gave the United States the right to build a canal across Panama.

1903年,巴拿马宣布脱离哥伦比亚的统治,成为独立国家。15天后,巴拿马和美国签署协定,美国获得了修建横跨巴拿马的运河的权利。

To protect the canal, President Roosevelt declared greater responsibility for a wide area around the canal. The greatest responsibility was financial. Roosevelt said the United States would guarantee repayment of loans made to Latin American countries.

为了保护运河,罗斯福总统宣布,美国将对运河周围的广大地区承担更大的责任。其中最大的责任是资金方面的。罗斯福说,美国将保证拉美国家偿还它们借下的贷款。

He did this to prevent European countries from using the issue of non-payment as an excuse to seize new territory in the Western Hemisphere.

他这么做是为了防止欧洲国家以拉美各国欠债不还为借口在西半球攫取新的殖民地。

HARRY MONROE: Some Latin American nations were in serious economic trouble. Venezuela was one.

当时,一些拉美国家处在严重的经济困境之中,委内瑞拉就是其中之一。

At that time, Venezuela owed millions of dollars to Britain and Germany. The Venezuelan ruler refused to make payments on the loans. Britain and Germany decided to use force to get the money.

委内瑞拉欠英国和德国数百万美元,而其领导人拒不还钱。于是,英国和德国决定用武力讨债。

Their ships began blocking Venezuela's ports. When they began shelling coastal areas, President Roosevelt intervened. He urged them to let the international court of arbitration at The Hague settle the dispute.

两国的军舰开始封锁委内瑞拉的港口。当它们炮轰委内瑞拉沿海地区时,罗斯福开始出面干预。他敦促英国和德国把纠纷交由海牙国际法庭裁决。

They agreed. And the blockade of Venezuela ended.

英国和德国同意了,并结束了对委内瑞拉的封锁。

KAY GALLANT: Less than two years later, a similar financial problem arose in the Dominican Republic. Revolutions and dictatorships there prevented re-payment of foreign loans.

这之后不到两年,多米尼加共和国又发生了类似的债务问题。那里的革命活动和独裁统治使政府无法偿还外债。

The United States offered a solution. It would take over collection of import taxes at ports in the Dominican Republic. Forty-five percent of the money would be paid to the Dominican government. The other fifty-five percent would be used to repay loans. The Dominican Republic agreed. The plan succeeded.

美国提出了一个解决办法。那就是,美国接管多米尼加共和国各港口的进口关税,把收入的百分之45付给多米尼加政府,剩下的百分之55用来还债。多米尼加共和国同意了,美国的计划成功了。

Some countries in Latin America and the Caribbean questioned the right of the United States to act as policeman for the Western Hemisphere. But none openly opposed President Roosevelt's policy.

虽然一些拉美国家对美国是否有权充当西半球警察心存疑虑,但是没有一个国家公然反对罗斯福的政策。

HARRY MONROE: Theodore Roosevelt had become president after the assassination of President William McKinley. He completed the last three years of McKinley's term. Then he was ready to be elected in his own right.

罗斯福是在麦金利遇刺身亡后当上总统的,他干完了麦金利剩下的三年任期,并准备以自己的实力当选总统。

Republican Party leaders, however, were not so sure. Roosevelt had made businessmen angry, because of his attempts to control big companies. But he made voters happy, because of his fight for social reforms.

但是,共和党大佬们并非全力支持罗斯福。一方面,罗斯福因为试图控制大企业而惹怒了商人,但另一方面,他竭力推进社会改革又博得了选民的爱戴。

Roosevelt's only serious competitor for the nomination was a long-time senator and presidential adviser. But the man died before the nominating convention. So, Roosevelt won the nomination easily.

在获得共和党提名的问题上,罗斯福唯一的真正对手是一位资深参议员兼总统顾问。不过,还没等提名大会召开,这个人就去世了。于是,罗斯福轻而易举地获得了共和党提名。

KAY GALLANT: The Democratic Party, in the past two elections, had nominated a progressive, Congressman William Jennings Bryan, as its candidate. This time, the Democrats chose a more conservative candidate. He was a New York judge, Alton Parker.

在过去两次总统选举中,民主党推选的都是进步派国会众议员布莱恩。这次,民主党选了位比布莱恩保守的候选人,他就是纽约州的法官阿尔顿·帕克尔。

Judge Parker had no chance to win the election. Theodore Roosevelt was the best-known man in America. He won easily.

不过,帕克尔根本就没有任何胜算。罗斯福是美国名气最大的人,他毫不费力就赢了总统选举。

On inauguration day, Roosevelt made a short speech. He said America's capitalist economic system had done much good for the country. But it also had created a crisis in social relations. And the crisis had to be solved. "If we fail," Roosevelt said, "the cause of self-government throughout the world will suffer greatly."

在总统就职日,罗斯福发表了简短的演说。他说,美国的资本主义经济系统为国家带来了很多好处,但它也使美国人的社会关系出现了危机。美国必须解决这些危机。罗斯福说:"如果我们失败,那么世界各地的自治运动都将受到重创。"

HARRY MONROE: During his new term in office, President Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve two major new laws. One was the Hepburn Act. This law gave the Interstate Commerce Commission power to limit how much railroads could charge for transporting goods. The purpose was to keep the cost of railroad transportation reasonable.

罗斯福得以在新一届任期中使国会批准了两部重要的新法律。一部是赫本法案,它使州际商贸委员会有权限定铁路公司的货运价格,目的是把铁路运费控制在合理的范围内。

The other new law was the Pure Food and Drug Act. This law declared it illegal to make or sell foods and medicines containing harmful chemicals. The purpose was to protect the health of all Americans.

另外一部法律是"清洁食品和药品法"。该法律禁止制造和销售含有有害化学成分的食品和药品,目的是保护所有美国人的身体健康。

KAY GALLANT: President Roosevelt's most important foreign policy success came as a result of a war between Russia and Japan.

罗斯福担任总统期间,在世界各地扩展美国的影响力。而他外交工作上最重要的成功起因于俄罗斯和日本之间的战争。

A Japanese painting from 1904 showing the Battle of the Yalu River between the forces of Japan and Russia
A Japanese painting from 1904 showing the Battle of the Yalu River between the forces of Japan and Russia

At that time, Russia occupied Manchuria in northern China. Japan occupied Korea. Japan wanted control of Manchuria. It needed that area's coal and iron ore. Japan also wanted to end any Russian threat to Korea. So, it decided to fight.

当时,俄罗斯占领了中国北部的满洲里,日本则占领着朝鲜。但日本也垂涎满洲里,希望将其占为己有,因为它需要那里的煤和铁矿石,并想扫清俄罗斯对朝鲜的威胁。所以,日本决定和俄罗斯开战。

Japan's navy easily defeated all the Russian fleets sent to the Pacific. But the two sides continued to fight on land. When both began to run out of money, they accepted President Roosevelt's offer to make peace.

在太平洋的海战中,日本海军轻而易举地击败了俄罗斯的舰队,但双方在陆上继续交战。当两国都开始感到财力不支,无法继续打仗时,它们接受了罗斯福总统出面调停的建议。

HARRY MONROE: Roosevelt invited Japanese and Russian diplomats to meet with him in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He told them his greatest hope and prayer was for them to find a just and lasting peace quickly. A quick settlement, however, was not easy.

罗斯福邀请日本和俄罗斯外交官在新罕布什尔州的朴茨茅斯会面,并对他们表示,自己最大的希望就是日本和俄罗斯能迅速实现公正而持久的和平。不过,想要迅速解决此事,并没有那么容易。

Japan demanded six hundred million dollars for war damages. It also wanted Sakhalin Island. Russia rejected both demands. It had agreed to give up southern Manchuria. Russia would give up nothing else.

日本提出6亿美元的战争赔款,还要求得到库页岛。这两个要求都被俄罗斯拒绝了。俄罗斯表示,除了之前答应的把满洲里南部让给日本外,不会再做任何让步。

Negotiations lasted many days. President Roosevelt became more and more angry when neither side would compromise. But he remained calm and kept the talks going.

就这样,谈判持续了很多天,两边都不肯妥协,这让罗斯福越来越恼火。不过,他依然保持镇静,让谈判继续进行。

Later, he said: "What I really wanted to do was give an angry shout, jump up, and knock their heads together."

罗斯福后来说:"我当时真正想做的是怒吼,跳起来,把日本和俄罗斯的脑袋摁到一块儿去。"

KAY GALLANT: Finally, Roosevelt made a secret appeal to the Emperor of Japan. He asked the Emperor to drop demands for money and for Sakhalin Island. He warned that Russia was ready to fight again if the peace talks failed.

最后,罗斯福秘密恳求日本天皇帮忙。他请天皇放弃赔款和对库页岛的要求。他警告说,如果和平谈判失败,俄罗斯会再开战。

The Emperor agreed to drop the demand for money. But, he still demanded half of Sakhalin Island. Russia agreed to this compromise. The two sides signed a peace treaty.

天皇同意撤销赔款要求,但是,他坚持要获得库页岛一半的领土。俄罗斯接受了这一妥协,双方签定了和平协议。

President Roosevelt with representatives of the Russian Czar and the Japanese Emperor
President Roosevelt with representatives of the Russian Czar and the Japanese Emperor

HARRY MONROE: Theodore Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating an end to the Russian-Japanese war. However, his efforts were denounced in Japan. Roosevelt was held responsible for the loss of war damage payments. It was money Japan needed badly.

因为成功调解日俄冲突,结束战争,罗斯福获得了诺贝尔和平奖。不过,他的努力在日本惹来骂声一片。日本人认为,就是因为罗斯福,日本才没能拿到战争赔款,而日本当时急需用钱。

Anti-American riots broke out in some parts of the country. At the same time, tense relations developed between American citizens and Japanese immigrants in California.

日本一些地方发生了反美暴动。与此同时,在美国加州,美国公民和日本移民的关系也变得紧张起来。

Poor Japanese immigrants were willing to work for low pay. As a result, Americans lost jobs. They protested. Then school officials in San Francisco barred Japanese children from attending school with white children.

贫穷的日本移民愿意接受低薪,结果导致美国人失去工作机会。美国人对此进行抗议。后来,旧金山的教育官员禁止日本孩子和白人孩子上同一所学校。

President Roosevelt opposed the decision. He asked the officials to lift the ban. In exchange, he agreed to ask Japan to stop its poor farmers and laborers from going to live in America.

罗斯福总统反对这个决定。他要求教育官员取消这个禁令。作为交换,他同意要求日本政府禁止贫穷农民和劳工移民美国。

Japan said it would. The understanding became known as the Gentleman's Agreement.

日本接受了这个要求。双方达成了所谓的"君子协定"。

KAY GALLANT: Roosevelt worked hard to improve America's relations with Japan. Yet he made clear that the United States would defend its interests in Asia and the Pacific.

罗斯福努力改善美国和日本的关系,不过他也清楚地表示,美国会捍卫自己在亚洲和太平洋地区的利益。

As a warning, he sent a naval force on a voyage around the world. The force included sixteen battleships and twelve thousand men. It was called the Great White Fleet.

为了警示其它国家,罗斯福派一支海军舰队巡航全世界。这支舰队有16艘战舰,1200名海员,名叫"大白舰队"。

The voyage lasted fourteen months. The fleet sailed down the Atlantic coast of South America. It went around the bottom of South America into the Pacific Ocean, then on to Hawaii, Australia, and Japan.

这次巡航持续了14个月。舰队南下南美洲大西洋沿岸,又从南美洲最南端进入太平洋,然后到达夏威夷、澳大利亚和日本。

Surprisingly, it received its warmest welcome in Japan.

令人吃惊的是,大白舰队居然是在日本受到了最热烈的欢迎。

An American reporter said: "The fleet made a deep and far-reaching impression. It caused the Japanese to understand the great power of the United States, as nothing else could possibly have done."

一个美国记者说:"大白舰队给人民留下了深刻而永久的印象。它让日本见识了美国强大的力量,没有别的东西能做到这一点。"

A cartoon from Harper's Magazine shows President Roosevelt carrying his
A cartoon from Harper's Magazine shows President Roosevelt carrying his "big stick" while trying to end a dispute of European powers over Morocco

President Roosevelt believed this show of American strength prevented war with Japan. "Sending out the fleet," he said, "was the most important thing I did for peace."

罗斯福总统相信,通过展示美国的国力,他避免了美日之间爆发战争。他说:"我为和平做的最重要的事就是派大白舰队出去巡航。"

HARRY MONROE: Theodore Roosevelt greatly enjoyed playing the part of peace-maker. After successfully ending the war between Russia and Japan, he was asked to settle another international dispute. At issue was control over Morocco.

罗斯福很享受自己扮演的和平缔造者的角色。在成功结束日俄战争之后,他又被邀请去调解因争夺对摩洛哥的控制权而引发的另一场国际争端。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English.

Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:perfect100
that time, the USA made a great contribution for the world peace ,settled sereval international disputs.
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