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#153: The Republican Party Is Split Over William Howard Taft

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Former president Theodore Roosevelt, on a hunting trip to Africa, stands beside the body of an elephant
Former president Theodore Roosevelt, on a hunting trip to Africa, stands beside the body of an elephant

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

June eighteenth, nineteen ten, was an exciting day for Theodore Roosevelt. It was the day that the former American president returned from a long trip to Africa and Europe. Hundreds of thousands of people gathered in New York City to welcome him home. There were speeches and bands and a parade.

对美国前总统西奥多.罗斯福来说,1910年6月18号是令人兴奋的一天,因为他在这天结束了在非洲和欧洲的长时间旅行回到美国。几十万人聚集到纽约,发表演说、组织乐队表演和游行,欢迎他归来。

This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Tony Riggs tell us about Teddy Roosevelt's trip. They also tell us how political problems hurt his friendship with President William Howard Taft.

FRANK OLIVER: It was the perfect end to a trip that began three weeks after Theodore Roosevelt completed his presidency.

罗斯福在卸任总统后三个星期开始出国旅行,这次返回美国,受到热情欢迎,可以说是给旅行划上了完美的句号。

Most of the trip was a huge success. In Africa, Theodore Roosevelt spent months hunting wild animals. He shot many lions, elephants, and other animals. He brought all of them back and gave them to the Smithsonian Institution.

罗斯福这次旅行基本上很成功。在非洲,他花了几个月的时间打猎,打了许多狮子、大象和其它野生动物。他把这些猎物都带回美国,捐赠给史密森国家博物馆。

After hunting in Africa, he and his wife, Edith, went to Europe.

在非洲的狩猎之行结束后,罗斯福和妻子伊迪思一起前往欧洲。

TONY RIGGS: The Roosevelts visited Italy and met the king and queen. They visited Vienna and met the ruler of Austria and Hungary. In Germany, they met Kaiser Wilhelm the second.

他们在意大利与意大利国王和王后见面,去维也纳,拜会了奥匈帝国皇帝。在德国,他们见到了德国皇帝威廉二世。

Kaiser Wilhelm invited the former American president to watch a big parade of German troops. He told him: "You are the first civilian who has ever joined the Kaiser in reviewing the troops of Germany."

威廉二世邀请罗斯福观礼德国军队的盛大阅兵式。他对罗斯福说:"你是第一位和我一起观看德军阅兵式的平民。"

The two men were photographed shaking hands. On the back of the photograph, the Kaiser wrote: "When we shake hands, we shake the world."

两人握手,照相。在照片的背后,威廉二世写道:"当我们握手时,我们撼动整个世界。"

The Roosevelts met the kings and queens of Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands. They met the crown princes of Sweden and Denmark. And, while in England, Mr. Roosevelt served as America's official representative at the funeral of King Edward the Seventh.

罗斯福夫妇还见到了挪威、比利时和荷兰的国王和女王,以及瑞典和丹麦的王储。在英国,罗斯福作为美国官方代表出席了英王爱德华七世的葬礼。

FRANK OLIVER: Theodore Roosevelt made a number of speeches at several universities, including Oxford and the Sorbonne. Yet all these activities did not keep him from reading newspapers and letters from home. The news troubled him.

罗斯福还在牛津、索邦等几所大学发表了多场演讲。虽然他参加了这么多活动,但这并不妨碍他阅读来自美国的报纸和信件。他看到的消息让他不安。

He had led the Republican Party with great success. Now, the party seemed to be falling apart. It had split into two groups. One group included conservatives who supported President William Howard Taft. The other group included progressives who opposed Taft.

罗斯福曾带领共和党取得巨大的成功。但现在,共和党似乎陷入了分裂。党内出现两派,一派是支持塔夫脱总统的保守派,另一派是反对塔夫脱的进步派。

Theodore Roosevelt had worked hard to get William Howard Taft elected. President Taft had been in office a little more than a year. Yet in that short time, he had broken almost completely with the progressives who had supported Roosevelt.

罗斯福当年费大力气把塔夫脱推上了总统宝座。塔夫脱这个总统才当了一年多一点,可在这段时间里,他几乎已经和支持罗斯福的进步派分子彻底决裂了。

TONY RIGGS: The split developed because progressives expected Taft to rule as Roosevelt had done -- with energy and emotion. They wanted a man who could excite people with dreams of social progress. Theodore Roosevelt was such a man. William Howard Taft was not.

决裂的原因是,进步派希望塔夫脱像罗斯福那样精力充沛、激情澎湃地领导国家,用社会进步的梦想激起人民的热情。罗斯福就是这样的人,但塔夫脱不是。

He was a big, slow-moving man. He refused to make quick decisions. As a former judge, he depended on facts, not emotion, to make decisions.

他高大魁梧,动作缓慢,他拒绝对事情做出迅速的决定。塔夫脱以前当过法官,所以他做决定时以事实为依据,而不会搀入感情因素。

President Taft did much to carry out the reform programs Theodore Roosevelt had begun. But his methods led people to believe that he was really trying to kill the programs.

塔夫脱总统为实施罗斯福开创的改革措施做了很多工作,但他做事的方式让却人们觉得,他其实是想要扼杀这些改革项目。

FRANK OLIVER: Taft wrote to Roosevelt shortly before the former president sailed for home.

在罗斯福返美前不久,塔夫脱给他写了封信。

"I do not know if I have had harder luck than other presidents," he said. "But I do know I have succeeded far less than others. I have been trying to carry out your policies. But my method of doing so has not worked smoothly."

信中说:"我不知道是不是自己的运气不如其他总统好。但是我知道,我取得的成就远远少于他们。我一直努力执行你的政策,但我做事的方法没能让事情一帆风顺。"

Theodore Roosevelt is welcomed in New York after his trip
Theodore Roosevelt is welcomed in New York after his trip

A few weeks later, Theodore Roosevelt returned home. In a speech to those who welcomed him in New York, he said: "I am ready and willing to do my part to help solve America's problems. And these problems must be solved if this country is to reach the high level of its hopes."

几周后,罗斯福回到了美国。他在纽约对欢迎人群发表讲话说:"我随时准备、也愿意为解决美国的问题出力。美国如果要实现它的鸿图大志,就必须解决这些问题。"

To President Taft, Roosevelt wrote: "I will make no speeches or say anything for two months. But I will keep my mind open, as I keep my mouth shut."

罗斯福还给塔夫脱回信说:"我会在两个月内不发表演讲,不说话,但是,在闭嘴的同时,我会保持开放的思想。"

TONY RIGGS: President Taft invited Theodore Roosevelt to visit him at the White House. Roosevelt said he could not. However, he did meet with many of the progressive opponents of the president.

塔夫脱总统邀请罗斯福到白宫看他。罗斯福说自己去不了,不过,他会晤了很多反对塔夫脱的进步派分子。

Later, he met with Taft at the president's summer home in Massachusetts. It was not a happy meeting. The two friends were tense. By this time, Roosevelt had decided that he agreed with the progressives. He believed President Taft had turned back many of Roosevelt's policies.

后来,罗斯福在麻萨诸塞州的总统夏季度假地同塔夫脱见了面。这并不是一次愉快的会晤。两位老朋友变得关系紧张。那时,罗斯福已经站到了进步派分子的一边。他认为,塔夫脱背叛了自己当初推行的很多政策。

FRANK OLIVER: Roosevelt decided it was time for him to go to the American people. He accepted an invitation to a celebration in Wyoming.

在沉默了一段时间后,他决定重新走入美国人民。他接受邀请,参加怀俄明州的一个庆祝活动。

He traveled west by train. He stopped in many towns and cities to make speeches. He spoke of party unity. He tried to heal the split that had weakened the Republican Party. But the policies he proposed were progressive. Conservatives refused to support them.

罗斯福乘火车前往西部。沿途,他在许多小镇和城市停下,发表演说。他大谈党内团结,试图修复那些使共和党力量削弱的分歧。但是,他提出的政策是进步主义的,因而遭到保守派的拒绝。

President Taft could not understand Roosevelt's purposes. "If only I knew what he wanted," Taft said, "I would do it. But he has told me nothing. I am deeply wounded. He gives me no chance to explain my position or to learn his."

塔夫脱总统不明白罗斯福的意图。他说:"要是我能了解罗斯福想要什么,我会去做。可是,他什么都不告诉我。我觉得很受伤。他没给我机会来解释我的立场,或者去了解他的立场。"

TONY RIGGS: Theodore Roosevelt hoped his speaking trip would help Republican Party candidates win in the nineteen ten congressional elections. His efforts seemed to fail. Republicans were defeated in many states.

罗斯福本希望他的演说之行可以帮共和党候选人在1910年的国会选举中获胜。但是,他的努力似乎失败了。共和党在很多州被民主党击败。

For a year after the party's defeat in the congressional elections, Theodore Roosevelt remained silent. Then, near the end of nineteen eleven, America's political parties began to prepare for the presidential election that would be held the following year.

在此后的一年里,罗斯福一直保持沉默。快到1911年年底时,美国各政党开始为1912年的总统选举做准备。

Roosevelt was sure Taft could not be re-elected. Taft had become very conservative. He had close ties to business interests. What the people wanted, thought Roosevelt, was a progressive president. What they wanted was a man like himself.

罗斯福觉得塔夫脱肯定不会获得连任。塔夫脱变得太保守了,并且和工商界利益集团关系密切。罗斯福认为,人民需要的是一位进步派总统,是一个像他自己一样的人。

So, Theodore Roosevelt began to speak out again in opposition to many of the things President Taft was doing. For example, President Taft had proposed treaties with Canada, Britain, and France. Roosevelt criticized them.

为此,他开始公开反对塔夫脱的许多做法。比如,塔夫脱提议同加拿大、英国和法国签订贸易协定,罗斯福则对这些计划提出批评。

FRANK OLIVER: Taft was troubled. He told a friend: "It is very hard to take all these blows from Roosevelt. I do not know what he is trying to do, except to make my way more difficult. It is very hard to see a close friendship going to pieces like a rope of sand."

塔夫脱非常不安。他对一个朋友说:"我很难接受罗斯福的这些攻击。除了让我这个总统更难当以外,我不知道他到底想干什么。看着曾经深厚的友情像沙子做的绳子一样粉碎,我很难过。"

By now it was clear to Taft that Roosevelt wanted to be the presidential candidate of the Republican Party in the election of nineteen twelve.

那时,塔夫脱已经清楚,罗斯福想代表共和党参加1912年总统选举。

William Howard Taft at his desk
William Howard Taft at his desk

Earlier, this would have pleased Taft. He would have been happy to leave the White House. But the situation was different now. Roosevelt had changed. Taft felt that the policies he proposed seemed too extreme. Taft decided it was his duty to oppose Roosevelt and the progressives. He would seek re-election.

要在以前,他会为此而高兴,他会乐于离开白宫。但现在,情况不一样了。罗斯福已经变了。塔夫脱觉得,罗斯福提出的政策太极端,他觉得自己有责任反对罗斯福和进步派分子。为此,他要寻求连任。

Taft believed he could win the Republican nomination for president. He still had the support of many party leaders.

塔夫脱相信自己能够获得共和党提名,参加总统竞选,因为当时还是有许多党内大佬支持他的。

TONY RIGGS: Four months before the Republican nominating convention opened, several progressive Republican governors appealed to Roosevelt. They urged him to declare himself a candidate for president. Roosevelt, they said, was the man to lead the nation into a new era of social progress.

在共和党提名大会召开前四个月,一些进步派的共和党州长向罗斯福发出了竞选邀约。他们催罗斯福尽快宣布自己参选,他们说罗斯福是可以带领美国进入社会进步新时代的领袖。

Then Taft made a strong statement against the progressives. "They are seeking," he said, "to pull down the temple of freedom and representative government." A reporter asked Roosevelt to answer Taft's statement. Roosevelt said: "My hat is in the ring." That meant he was a candidate. Now, the conflict was in the open. And Roosevelt was ready to fight.

塔夫脱严辞批评进步派人士,他说:"这些人试图捣毁自由和代议政府的神圣殿堂。"一名记者请罗斯福对这个说法做出回应。罗斯福只说:"我已经参加战斗。"这意味着罗斯福是候选人。双方的矛盾公开化,罗斯福准备上阵了。

FRANK OLIVER: In his speeches, Roosevelt criticized Taft bitterly. In a voice shaking with hatred, he said Taft was controlled by conservative politicians. He said Taft stood in the way of progress. He said Taft was disloyal.

罗斯福在竞选演说中大骂塔夫脱。他的声音因愤恨而颤抖。他说,塔夫脱受保守派政客摆布,是社会进步的绊脚石,而且背信弃义。

Taft had to answer. In one speech, he said: "This tears my soul. I am here to answer an old and true friend who has made many charges. I deny all those charges. I do not want to fight Theodore Roosevelt. But I am going to fight him."

塔夫脱必须对此做出回应,他在一次演讲中说:"我为此而心碎。我在这里要面对一位多年的挚友,要回应他对我做出的诸多指责。我否认所有这些指责。我不想和罗斯福斗,可我别无选择。"

After the speech, a reporter looked for the president. He found him sitting alone, his head in his hands. His eyes were filled with tears. "Roosevelt was my closest friend," Taft said.

演讲结束后,一名记者四处寻找塔夫脱。他看到塔夫脱一个人坐着,头埋进双手中间,眼含泪水。他说:"罗斯福曾是我最亲密的朋友。"

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Frank Oliver and Tony Riggs.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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