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#167: Warren Harding Wins Election of 1920

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Warren Harding had owned a newspaper in Ohio. People advised him to enter politics, because he was such a good public speaker.
Warren Harding had owned a newspaper in Ohio. People advised him to enter politics, because he was such a good public speaker.

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

This week in our series, Doug Johnson and Shirley Griffith discuss the presidential election of nineteen twenty and the man who won, Warren Harding.

DOUG JOHNSON: The presidential election of nineteen twenty was a turning point in American politics. It ended a period of social reforms at home and an active foreign policy. It began a period of conservative thinking in both the political and social life of the nation.

1920年的总统大选在美国政治史上是一个转折点,它结束了美国国内的社会改革和积极的对外政策,开启了美国政治和社会生活的保守思维时期。

American reporter H. L. Mencken described the national feeling this way: "The majority of Americans are tired of idealism. They want capitalism -- openly and without apology."

美国记者门肯曾这样描述当时的社会思潮:"绝大多数美国人厌倦了理想主义,他们公开地、毫无愧意地要求实行资本主义。"

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: President Woodrow Wilson had suffered a stroke during his second term. He was very sick. No one expected him to be a candidate again. Yet he refused to announce that he would not run for a third term.

伍德罗.威尔逊总统在他第二个任期内中风,身体很虚弱,没有人认为他会第三次竞选总统,但威尔逊却拒绝宣布放弃连任。

Woodrow Wilson had done much during his administration. He helped pass important laws dealing with trade, banking, and the rights of workers. He led the nation through the bloody world war in Europe. He tried, but failed, to have the United States join the new international organization -- the League of Nations.

威尔逊在任期间政绩斐然,他推动通过了一些贸易、银行和劳工权利方面的重要法律,率领美国参加了欧洲血腥的第一次世界大战,并努力想让美国加入新成立的国际组织--国联,尽管他的努力失败了。

The American people honored Wilson for his intelligence and ideas. But they were tired of his policies of social change. And they did not want to be involved in international problems anymore.

美国人民尊重他的才智和想法,但也厌倦了他的社会改革政策,而且,人们也不希望再次介入国际争端。

DOUG JOHNSON: The leaders of President Wilson's Democratic Party understood the feelings of the people. They knew they had little chance of winning the presidential election if they nominated a candidate of change.

威尔逊是民主党人,民主党的大佬们深知民众的想法。他们明白,如果他们提名一位仍然要求进行社会变革的人为总统候选人的话,胜算将几乎为零。

Delegates to the democratic nominating convention voted forty-four times before agreeing on a candidate. They chose the governor of the state of Ohio, James Cox.

参加民主党总统候选人提名大会的代表们投了44次票才最终选定总统候选人,那就是俄亥俄州州长詹姆士.考克斯。

The Republican Party also had a difficult time at its nominating convention. Four men wanted to be president. The delegates voted six times. None of the men gained enough support. So, several party leaders met in private. They agreed that only one man -- a compromise candidate -- could win the support of the convention. He was a senator from the state of Ohio, Warren Harding.

共和党提名大会也经历了艰难的时刻。有四个人想当总统,代表们投了六次票,但没有一个人获得足够的票数。所以,共和党几位大佬私下会谈。经过协商,他们达成妥协,同意只有一个人能够获得大会的支持,那就是来自俄亥俄州的联邦参议员沃伦.哈丁。

The delegates voted ten more times before choosing Harding as their candidate for president. For vice president, they chose Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts.

代表们又投了十次票,最终选定哈丁为总统候选人,麻萨诸塞州的加尔文.柯立芝为副总统候选人。

Visitors waiting to see President Harding, around 1921
Visitors waiting to see President Harding, around 1921

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Warren Harding had owned a newspaper in Ohio. People advised him to enter politics, because he was such a good public speaker.

沃伦.哈丁在俄亥俄州拥有一家报社,人们建议他从政,因为他是个出色的公众演说家。

During the campaign, he promised lower taxes, less immigration, and more aid to farmers. He called for "normalcy" -- a new period of peace and quiet, with few changes. That is what the voters wanted to hear in nineteen twenty.

在竞选期间,他向选民们许诺降低税收,减少外来移民,向农民提供更多的补助。他呼吁社会走向"常态"--一种和平而宁静、没什么变化的生活。而这正是1920年时选民们想要听到的东西。

Warren Harding won the election with sixty-eight percent of the popular vote. In his first act as president, he invited people to visit the White House. He permitted them to walk in the garden. The act was a sign. The government seemed to be returning to the people.

沃伦.哈丁获得了68%的选民票,当选总统。上任后,他做的第一件事就是邀请民众参观白宫,允许人们在花园中散步。这种作法是一个标志,意味着美国政府似乎又回到了人民手中。

DOUG JOHNSON: Warren Harding is remembered mostly for two events. One was a successful international conference. The other was a shameful national incident.

哈丁最为人们所铭记的有两件事,一是他成功地组织召开了一次国际会议,二是一件全国性丑闻。

After World War One, Britain, Japan, and the United States expanded their navies. They built bigger and better ships. Many members of the United States Congress worried about the cost. They also worried about increased political tension in Asia. They asked President Harding to organize a conference to discuss these issues.

一战结束后,英国、日本和美国都在扩张海军。它们建造规模更大、性能更优良的战舰。许多美国国会议员担心军费开支太大,他们还为日益激化的亚洲紧张局势而担忧。为此,他们要求哈丁总统组织召开一次国际会议来商讨这些问题。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: The conference was held in Washington in November, nineteen twenty-one. President Harding invited representatives from the major naval powers of the time: Britain, Japan, France, and Italy. He also invited representatives from countries with interests in Asia: China, Portugal, Belgium and the Netherlands. He did not invite the new Soviet leaders in Russia.

这次会议于1921年11月在华盛顿召开。哈丁总统邀请当时海军最强大的几个国家派代表参加,包括英国、日本、法国和意大利。他还邀请在亚洲有重要利益的国家的代表与会,包括中国、葡萄牙、比利时和荷兰。他没有邀请上台不久的苏联领导人。

Mr. Harding's secretary of state, Charles Evans Hughes, spoke. He offered the conference a detailed plan to reduce the size of the world's major navies.

哈丁总统的国务卿查尔斯.埃文斯.休斯在会上讲了话。他提出了一项详细的海军大国裁军计划。

He proposed that the world's strongest nations should stop building warships for ten years. He also proposed that Britain, Japan, and the United States should destroy some ships to make their navies smaller immediately.

他提议,世界各主要海军大国在未来十年里停止建造战舰,他还提议英国、日本和美国销毁一些战舰,以达到立即减少海军规模的目的。

DOUG JOHNSON: Delegates to the conference debated the plan for three months. Japan demanded, and won, the right to have more ships. But the final agreement was very close to the one proposed by Secretary Hughes.

与会代表们围绕这份计划争论了三个月。日本要求、并最终得到了拥有更多军舰的权利。不过,会议最终达成的协议与休斯所提出的计划非常接近。

The conference was not a complete success.

虽然会议最终达成的协议与美国的提议接近,但这次会议并没有完全成功。

For example, it did not prevent countries from building some kinds of ships. These ships would prove important in the second world war. Also, it did not create ways to protect China and the islands in the South Pacific Ocean from Japanese expansion. Yet the naval treaty of nineteen twenty-one was the first in which the world's strongest countries agreed to reduce the size of their armed forces. Most people thought it was a good treaty.

比如,它并没有阻止各国建造某些种类的军舰,而这些军舰在后来爆发的第二次世界大战中发挥了重要的作用。另外,这次会议也没能保护中国和南太平洋一些岛屿免受日本侵略。然而,1921年的海军条约是世界大国一致同意减少武装力量规模的第一个协议,大多数人认为这是一份好条约。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: The second thing for which President Harding is remembered is the Teapot Dome scandal. It involved the misuse of underground oil owned by the federal government.

除了这次国际会议外,另一件使哈丁总统为人所记住的事是蒂波特山丑闻。它涉及滥用联邦政府所掌管的地下石油。

Warren Harding was an honest man. But he did not have a strong mind of his own. He was easily influenced. And he often accepted bad advice. He explained the problem with these words:

沃伦.哈丁是个诚实的人,但他缺乏主见,很容易受他人影响,而且他经常采纳不好的建议。他曾经这样解释这个问题:

"I listen to one side, and they seem right. Then I listen to the other side, and they seem just as right. I know that somewhere there is a man who knows the truth. But I do not know where to find him."

"我听一方的意见,觉得他们说的有理,然后我又听另一方的意见,觉得他们说得也有理。我知道在某个地方肯定有一个人知道真正的答案是什么,但是我不知道到哪儿去找这个人。"

DOUG JOHNSON: President Harding appointed several men of great ability to his cabinet. They included Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon, and Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover.  However, some of his appointments were dishonest men. One was Interior Secretary Albert Fall. He was responsible for the Teapot Dome scandal.

哈丁总统任命了几位非常能干的人进入内阁,包括国务卿查尔斯.埃文斯.休斯、财政部长安德鲁.梅隆和商务部长休伯特.胡佛。然而,他也任用了一些奸诈小人。其中之一就是内政部长艾伯特.富尔,就是他引出了蒂波特山丑闻。

Secretary Fall gave a private company the right to take oil from land owned by the federal government. In return, the company gave him money and cattle.

内政部长富尔允许一家私人公司在蒂波特山由联邦政府管辖的土地上开采石油,作为回报,这家公司给他钱和牛。

The oil was not supposed to be taken from the ground. It was supposed to be saved for the United States navy to use in an emergency. Private oil companies and many politicians opposed this policy. They said saving the oil was unnecessary.

蒂波特山油田不是用来开采的,它是为美国海军提供紧急之用的战略石油储备。当时,一些私人公司和许多政客反对这一政策,说储备这些石油是没有必要的。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Albert Fall opposed the policy when he was a member of the Senate. When he became Interior Secretary, his department took control of the lands containing the underground oil. Then he permitted private companies to use the land for a period of time. During that time, the companies could take out the oil.

艾伯特.富尔还是参议员时就反对这项政策。他担任内政部长时,内政部接管了这片蕴藏着油矿的土地,于是,他同意一些私人公司在一定时期内使用这片土地,可以在这里开采石油。

Some of the oil was in the western state of Wyoming. The rock mass on the surface looked like a container for making tea. So, the area was called Teapot Dome. When the Senate uncovered Secretary Fall's wrong-doing, the press quickly called the incident the Teapot Dome scandal.

有些油矿位于美国西部的怀俄明州内,地表上面的巨大岩石形状像茶壶,因此这里被称为蒂波特山,也就是茶壶山的意思。当参议院发现富尔这种腐败行为之后,媒体很快把这一事件称作蒂波特山丑闻。

The Senate investigation led to several court cases which lasted throughout the nineteen twenties. Secretary Fall was found guilty of misusing his government position. He was sentenced to prison for one year.

参议院对这起丑闻的调查引发了好几场诉讼案,贯穿了整个20世纪的20年代。内政部长富尔被判犯有滥用职权罪,入狱一年。

DOUG JOHNSON: President Harding did not live to see the end of the Teapot Dome incident. In the summer of nineteen twenty-three, he made a political trip to Alaska and western states. On the way home, he became sick while in San Francisco. He died of a heart attack.

哈丁总统没有亲眼看到蒂波特山丑闻事件的结局。1923年夏天,他到阿拉斯加和西部各州视察,在返回途中,他在旧金山患病,死于心脏病。

Vice President Calvin Coolidge was in the northeastern state of Vermont when he heard that President Harding had died. Coolidge's father was a local court official there. He gave the oath of office to his son. That is how Calvin Coolidge became the thirtieth president of the United States.

副总统柯立芝听到哈丁总统去逝的消息时正在东北部的佛蒙特州。柯立芝的父亲是当地地方法院的法官,他主持了儿子宣誓就职总统的仪式。加尔文.柯立芝就这样成为了美国第三十任总统。

The story of his administration will be the subject of our program next week.

(MUSIC)

STEVE EMBER: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Doug Johnson and Shirley Griffith. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and historical images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #167

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