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#172: American History: Blacks Set Out in Search of a Better Life in 1920s Society

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Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

The early years of the twentieth century were a time of movement for many black Americans. Traditionally, most blacks lived in the Southeastern states. But in the nineteen twenties, many blacks moved to cities in the North.

20世纪初期是美国黑人运动的活跃期。原来,美国的大部分黑人都生活在东南部各州,但在20世纪二十年代,许多黑人搬到了北方的城市。

Black Americans moved because living conditions were so poor in the rural areas of the Southeast. But many of them discovered that life was also hard in the colder Northern cities. Jobs often were hard to find. Housing was poor. And whites sometimes acted violently against them.

黑人之所以向北方迁居,是因为在东南部农村的生活条件实在太差了。不过,许多北迁的黑人发现,在寒冷的北方城市生活同样艰难。那里很难找到工作,住房条件差,而且白人有时会对他们施暴。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe tell about the life of black Americans in the nineteen twenties and how they helped form traditions.

本周,我们就向您讲述这一时期美国黑人的生活以及他们建立新传统的故事。

(MUSIC)

KAY GALLANT: The years just before and after nineteen twenty were difficult for blacks. It was a time of racial hatred. Many whites joined the Ku Klux Klan organization. The Klan often terrorized blacks. Klan members sometimes burned fiery crosses in front of the houses of black families. And they sometimes beat and murdered blacks.

1920年前后几年是美国黑人极为困难的时期,当时种族仇恨严重。许多白人加入了"三K"党,这个组织经常恐吓黑人,其成员有时会在黑人的住房前焚烧"血十字架",有时还殴打、谋杀黑人。

The Ku Klux Klan also acted against Roman Catholics, Jews, and foreigners. But it hated blacks most of all.

三K党也对天主教徒、犹太教徒和外国人采取不友好的行动,但他们最最敌视的是黑人。

Klu Klux Klan members, around 1922
Klu Klux Klan members, around 1922

HARRY MONROE: The United States also suffered a series of race riots in a number of cities during this period. White and black Americans fought each other in Omaha, Philadelphia, and other cities.

这一时期,美国许多城市发生了种族暴乱,白人和黑人在奥哈马、费城和其他城市发生冲突。

The worst riot was in Chicago. A swimming incident started the violence. A black boy sailing a small boat entered a part of the beach used by white swimmers. Some white persons threw stones at the boy. He fell into the water and drowned.

最严重的冲突发生在芝加哥,起因是一次游泳事件。一个黑人男孩划了一艘小船进入了白人使用的海滩。一些白人就向这个孩子投石块,结果,黑人小孩掉到水里淹死了。

Black citizens heard about the incident and became extremely angry. Soon, black and white mobs were fighting each other in the streets.

黑人得知这一消息后非常气愤,很快,黑人和白人在大街上发生了冲突。

The violence lasted for two weeks. Thirty-eight persons died. More than five-hundred were wounded. The homes of hundreds of families were burned.

这次暴力冲突持续了两周,38人死亡,500多人受伤,数百户房子被烧毁。

The violence in Chicago and other cities did not stop black Americans from moving north or west. They felt that life had to be better than in the South.

不过,芝加哥和其它城市的暴力冲突并没能阻挡黑人从南方向北方或西部迁居的脚步,他们觉得无论怎样,别处的生活都要比南方好。

KAY GALLANT: Black Americans left the South because life was hard, economic chances few, and white hatred common. But many blacks arrived in other parts of the country only to learn that life was no easier. Some blacks wrote later that they had only traded the open racism of the rural Southeast for the more secret racism of Northern cities.

美国黑人离开南方是因为那里生活艰苦、经济发展机会少和白人普遍仇恨黑人。但许多黑人离开南方到别处去后,等待他们的是同样艰苦的日子。一些黑人后来写道:他们在东南部农村地区受到公开的种族歧视,离开东南部到北方城市后,唯一改变的就是种族歧视没有那么明显而已。

Blacks responded to these conditions in different ways. Some blacks followed the ideas of Booker T. Washington, the popular black leader of the early nineteen hundreds.

黑人以不同方式对这种社会现状作出反应。有些黑人追随20世纪初著名黑人领袖博克.华盛顿。

Washington believed that blacks had to educate and prepare themselves to survive in American society. He helped form a number of training schools where blacks could learn skills for better jobs. And he urged blacks to establish businesses and improve themselves without causing trouble with whites.

博克.华盛顿认为,黑人应该受教育,提高自己的修养,这样才能在美国社会生存。他帮助创建了多所职业技术学校,让黑人在那里学习技能,寻找更好的工作。他还敦促黑人创业,在不和白人发生冲突的情况下改善自己的生活条件。

Other blacks liked the stronger ideas of William Du Bois.

其他一些黑人则喜欢威廉.杜鲍斯的更加强硬的主张。

Du Bois felt that blacks had to take firm actions to protest murders and other illegal actions. He published a magazine and spoke actively for new laws and policies to protect black rights. Du Bois also helped form a group that later became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The NAACP became one of the nation's leading black rights organizations in the twentieth century.

杜鲍斯认为,黑人必须对谋杀和其它非法行为采取有力的还击。他出版了一份杂志,并为呼吁出台保护黑人权利的新法律和新政策而到处演说。杜鲍斯还帮助成立了一个组织,这个组织后来成为美国全国有色人种协进会的前身,有色人种协进会是20世纪最主要的黑人权益运动组织之一。

Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington

HARRY MONROE: Probably the most important leader for black Americans in the nineteen twenties did not come from the United States. He was Marcus Garvey from the Caribbean island of Jamaica. Garvey moved to New York City in nineteen sixteen. He quickly began organizing groups in black areas.

在20世纪二十年代,对于美国黑人来说,最重要的领导人并非来自美国,而是来自加勒比海岛屿牙买加的马库斯.加维。他1916年来到纽约,很快就开始在黑人居住区组织各种团体。

His message was simple. He said blacks should not trust whites. Instead, they should be proud of being black and should help each other. Garvey urged blacks to leave the United States, move to Africa, and start their own nation.

他的理念很简单,他说,黑人不要相信白人,而应该为自己的肤色而骄傲,要相互帮助。加维劝黑人离开美国,到非洲去建立自己的国家。

Marcus Garvey organized several plans to help blacks become economically independent of whites. His biggest effort was a shipping company to trade goods among black people all over the world.

他想出了几个计划,帮助黑人摆脱白人,在经济上独立。其中最大手笔的是成立一家船务公司,负责在世界各地的黑人之间进行货物贸易。

Many American blacks gave small amounts of money each week to help Garvey start the shipping company. However, the idea failed. Government officials arrested Garvey for collecting the money unlawfully. They sent him to prison in nineteen twenty-five. And two years later, President Coolidge ordered Garvey out of the country.

许多美国黑人每周都拿出少量的钱来给加维,帮助他开起这个船务公司。然而,这个计划最终失败了。美国政府以非法集资的罪名逮捕了加维,并于1925年判他入狱两年。两年后,柯立芝总统下令将加维驱逐出境。

Marcus Garvey's group was the first major black organization in the United States to gain active support from a large number of people. The organization failed. But it did show the anger and lack of hope that many blacks felt about their place in American society.

加维领导的组织是美国第一个赢得广泛支持的主要黑人组织,尽管这个组织失败了,但它体现出许多美国黑人对其社会地位的愤怒和失望。

(MUSIC)

KAY GALLANT: Blacks also showed their feelings through writing, art and music. The nineteen twenties were one of the most imaginative periods in the history of American black art.

20世纪二十年代美国黑人运动兴起,黑人对种族歧视和艰苦的生活环境感到愤怒和沮丧。他们也通过文学、艺术和音乐表现自己的感受。20世纪二十年代是美国黑人艺术历史上最具想象力的时期之一。

Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen were three of the leading black poets during this time. McKay was best known for his poems of social protest. Hughes produced poems about black life that experts now say are among the greatest American poems ever written.

克劳德.麦凯、兰斯顿.休斯和康特.卡伦是这一时期最杰出的三位黑人诗人。麦凯以其抗议社会的诗而闻名,休斯的诗则反映了黑人的生活,今天的专家们认为,他的诗可以跻身美国最伟大诗歌的行列。

Black writers also produced longer works. Among the leading black novelists were Jessie Faucet, Jean Toomer, and Rudolph Fisher.

黑人作家们还创作了比诗歌更长的文学作品。杰西.弗塞特、吉恩.图默和鲁道夫.费舍尔是这一时期著名黑人小说家中的领军人物。

(MUSIC)

HARRY MONROE: The nineteen twenties also were an exciting time for black music. Black musicians playing the piano developed the ragtime style of music. Singers and musicians produced a sad, emotional style of playing that became known as the blues. And most important, music lovers began to play and enjoy a new style that was becoming known as jazz.

20世纪二十年代,美国黑人音乐的发展也激动人心。演奏钢琴的黑人音乐家发展了原先的拉格泰姆音乐风格。歌唱家和音乐人创作了一种悲伤、充满感情的音乐,后来这种音乐被称为"布鲁斯"或是"蓝调"。最重要的是,音乐爱好者们开始演奏和享受一种新的音乐形式,这就是著名的爵士乐。

Jazz advanced greatly as a true American kind of music in the nineteen twenties. Musicians Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington and Eubie Blake played in gathering places and small theaters. White musicians and music experts from universities came to listen. Soon the music became popular among Americans of all kinds and around the world.

爵士乐作为真正的美国本土音乐在20世纪二十年代得到了巨大的发展。音乐人路易斯.阿姆斯特朗、杜克.埃灵顿和优比.布莱克在公共场所和小剧场演出,白人音乐人和来自大学的音乐专家前去聆听。不久,这种音乐形式就在美国各地和全世界流行开来了。

KAY GALLANT: Blacks began to recognize in the nineteen twenties their own deep roots in the United States. They began to see just how much black men and women already had done to help form American history and traditions.

20世纪二十年代,美国黑人开始认识到他们的根已经深深地扎入美国,他们开始看到,在美国历史和传统的形成过程中,黑人发挥了重要作用。

The person who did the most to help blacks understand this was black historian Carter G. Woodson. Woodson received his training at two leading universities: Harvard in Massachusetts and the Sorbonne in France. He launched a new publication, the Journal of Negro History, in which he and other experts wrote about black life and history. Historians today call Woodson the father of the scientific study of black history.

他们能明白这一点,最主要要归功于黑人历史学家卡特.伍德森。伍德森在两所著名的大学深造--位于麻萨诸塞州的哈佛大学,和位于法国巴黎的索帮神学院。他创办了一份新杂志,叫《黑人历史期刊》。在这本杂志中,他和其他一些历史学家介绍了黑人的生活和历史。今天的历史学家们称伍德森为黑人历史科学研究之父。

HARRY MONROE: The nineteen twenties also were a period in which a number of blacks experimented with new political ideas and parties. The difficult social conditions of the period led many blacks to search for new political solutions.

20世纪二十年代,许多美国黑人开始接触新的政治思想和政党。这一时期艰苦的社会环境让许多黑人开始寻求新的政治解决办法。

Two leftist parties -- the Socialists and the Communists -- urged blacks to leave the traditional political system and work for more extreme change. Two leading black Socialists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, urged blacks to support Socialist candidates. However, they gained little popular support from blacks.

当时的两个左翼政党--社会党和共产党--劝黑人放弃传统的政治体制,为更加激进的政治变革而努力。两位著名社会党黑人领袖是钱德勒.欧文和菲利普.伦道夫,他们劝黑人支持社会党候选人,但是并没有得到黑人的支持。

Communists also tried to organize black workers. But generally, black voters showed little interest in communist ideas.

共产党也试图把黑人工人组织起来。不过总体来说,黑人选民对共产主义理念没什么兴趣。

The most important change in black political thinking during the nineteen twenties came within the traditional two-party system itself. Blacks usually had voted for Republicans since the days of Abraham Lincoln. But the conservative Republican policies of the nineteen twenties caused many blacks to become Democrats.

20世纪二十年代黑人政治理念最大的改变还是来自于美国传统的两党体系本身。从林肯执政时期以来,黑人一直都投票支持共和党,但到20世纪二十年代,共和党的保守政策使得许多黑人转而支持民主党。

By nineteen thirty-two, blacks would vote by a large majority for the Democratic presidential candidate, Franklin Roosevelt. And blacks continue to be a major force in the Democratic Party.

1932年,绝大多数黑人将票投给了民主党总统候选人富兰克林.罗斯福,而且此后黑人一直是民主党的重要力量。

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #172

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作者:郑烈波
and blacks continue to be a major force in the democratic
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