官方APP下载:英语全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英语学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
网红英语口语课程——OMG美语,2011-2016完整课程视频打包下载发布!1170课,12.3G
手机微信学英语
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学英语。
英语全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV英语学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
初级VIP会员
全站英语学习资料下载。
¥98元/12个月

#192: German Forces Defeated in Russia and Britain

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版) 
文章正文
同步字幕
German soldiers in Stalingrad, September 1942
German soldiers in Stalingrad, September 1942

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

(MUSIC)

In December nineteen forty-one, the United States was at war.

It declared war against Japan after Japanese planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. A few days later, Germany and Italy declared war against the United States.

President Franklin Roosevelt quickly decided that America could not fight major campaigns in the Pacific and in Europe at the same time. He and his advisers decided to fight first against the Germans and Italians. Then, when victory in Europe seemed sure, the United States could turn to fight the Japanese in Asia.

This left the Japanese free to extend their power throughout Asia and the western Pacific. Soon after the attack at Hawaii, Japanese forces invaded Hong Kong, Malaya and the Philippines. American forces in the Philippines suffered heavy losses. And Manila fell to Japanese troops. In February nineteen forty-two, Japan's forces won a great victory against the British in Singapore.

Japanese forces marched into Burma. They attacked Ceylon -- now Sri Lanka -- and captured the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal. The Japanese military forces seemed too strong to stop.

President Roosevelt sent some forces to the Pacific. And he began to rebuild the American naval forces destroyed at Pearl Harbor. But he sent most of America's military strength to Europe. The United States rushed troops and war equipment to help Britain survive against Adolf Hitler's Germany.

American military leaders wanted to fight Germany quickly by launching an attack across the English Channel. But British Prime Minister Winston Churchill opposed this.

He and others feared such an invasion might fail. So, British and American forces attacked Italian and German occupation troops in North Africa. They defeated them, and then crossed the Mediterranean Sea to attack enemy forces in Sicily. Within weeks, they pushed the Germans out of Sicily to the Italian mainland. The Allied invasion of Italy followed.

Hitler could not strengthen his forces in North Africa and Italy, because Germany also was fighting hard in the Soviet Union.

Hitler's decision early in the war to attack the Soviet Union was a serious mistake. It divided his men and materials. His plan was to defeat Soviet forces quickly with one strong attack. But he failed. And his failure cost him valuable troops and supplies that might have helped him win the battles for North Africa and Italy.

(MUSIC)

Germany's attack on the Soviet Union began with great success.

In the middle of nineteen forty-one, a German force of more than three million men invaded the Soviet Union. It captured the Ukraine, took control of Kiev, and marched deep into Russia.

The situation changed the following year. Soviet forces under Marshal Georgy Zhukov won a fierce battle for the city of Stalingrad -- now Volgograd. A great many German soldiers died from cold and hunger during the bitter winter months that followed.

Captured German soldiers making their way in the cold through the ruins of Stalingrad
Captured German soldiers making their way in the cold through the ruins of Stalingrad

(MUSIC)

Zhukov's forces attacked the German troops and pushed back the invaders. Other Soviet troops forced the Germans away from the city of Leningrad -- now St. Petersburg.

By the middle of nineteen forty-four, German forces throughout the Soviet Union were retreating. And Soviet forces were preparing to push them over the border and invade Germany themselves. The fighting came at a terrible cost. Huge numbers of soldiers and civilians were killed.

(MUSIC)

The fighting in World War Two was not limited to land. Battles were also being fought on the sea. The main goal of the German navy during the war was to prevent the United States from sending ships to Britain with war materials, food and troops. At first, the Germans were very successful. There was hunger in Britain in nineteen forty-one because so few ships could cross the North Atlantic with food.

(MUSIC)

German submarines were the greatest danger to ships crossing the Atlantic. These U-boats, as the Germans called them, could hide below the surface and attack without warning.

The threat from German submarines did not ease until new technology was developed in nineteen forty-three. Allied scientists improved sonar and radar systems that helped find submarines on the surface and underwater. More of the enemy submarines were found and destroyed. The Allies slowly gained control of the Atlantic.

(MUSIC)

Allied and German warships fought a number of traditional naval battles. But airplanes came to play an increasingly important part in the fighting at sea. British ships, with the help of planes launched from an aircraft carrier, destroyed a powerful German battleship, the Bismarck on May 27, 1941.

(MUSIC)

The most famous air battle of the war in Europe took place during the summer and autumn of the previous year. It was known as the Battle of Britain. It got its name from a speech to Parliament by Prime Minister Churchill following the evacuation of British and French forces from Dunkirk.

BBC: "This is the BBC Home Service. Here is the news. In the House of Commons this afternoon, the prime minister, Mr. Churchill, said: 'What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin.'"

STEVE EMBER: It was the most extensive aerial bombing yet in the war.  It was also the first battle to be fought entirely in the air.

(SOUND)

German Stuka dive-bombers attacked shipping centers, areas of political importance, airfields, and airplane factories.

Two American pilots prepare to fly a British Spitfire
Two American pilots prepare to fly a British Spitfire

Luftwaffe pilots in their Messerschmidts battled the Hurricanes and Spitfires of the Royal Air Force. While the flying skills of the German and British pilots were well matched, it was ultimately the greater maneuverability of the British Spitfire that won the long months of battle over the English Channel.

(MUSIC)

The British victory in the air helped prevent "Operation Sea Lion," a planned German invasion of Britain.

In May of nineteen forty-two, Britain's Royal Air Force carried out an attack on Germany with one thousand bombers. It was just the first of many bombing runs over Germany and German-occupied areas by the air forces of Britain and the United States.

The planes bombed German military and industrial centers. They also bombed civilian targets in an effort to demonstrate to the German people the price of Germany's aggression. The German cities of Cologne, Dresden and Hamburg suffered widespread destruction. The Allied bombing attacks continued until the war's end in nineteen forty-five.

Hitler's victories in the early months of the war had struck fear in the hearts of people throughout the world.

Hitler and his Axis allies had won battle after battle. They had captured most of western Europe, except for Britain, and invaded the Soviet Union. They had seized North Africa. And their submarines controlled the Atlantic.

A German submarine in June 1943
A German submarine in June 1943

Germany continued to seem strong during the first months after the United States entered the war in Europe. But the situation began to change. German strength and control were greatest in November of nineteen forty-two. After then, the mighty German military machine began to slow down.

Germany and its Axis partner Italy suffered serious losses in the first six months of nineteen forty-three.

German losses were extremely heavy in the Soviet Union. One hundred sixty thousand German troops died at Stalingrad, and more than one hundred ten thousand surrendered.

American and British forces captured two hundred fifty thousand German and Italian troops in North Africa. Many more thousands were killed or captured in Sicily and the Italian mainland. German submarines were being destroyed in the North Atlantic, allowing more Allied troops and supplies to reach Britain.

By the end of nineteen forty-three, Hitler and his armies no longer seemed so strong. But German forces continued to occupy France, Belgium and much of the rest of western Europe. Now, the time had come for the Allies to invade German-held Europe from Britain.

Allied forces planned the greatest military invasion in history to break the German control of Europe and win the war.

US GENERAL DWIGHT EISENHOWER: "People of Western Europe: A landing was made this morning on the coast of France by troops of the Allied Expeditionary Force. This landing is part of a concerted United Nations plan for the liberation of Europe. Although the initial assault may not have been made in your own country, the hour of your liberation is approaching."

(MUSIC)

STEVE EMBER: That invasion -- the famous D-Day landing on the beaches of Normandy -- will be our story next week.

Our program was written by David Jarmul. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

___

This was program #192. For earlier programs, type "Making of a Nation" in quotation marks in the search box at the top of the page.

1941年12月,美国加入了第二次世界大战。美国是在日本空袭夏威夷珍珠港的美国海军基地后对日宣战的。几天后,德国和意大利对美国宣战。富兰克林.罗斯福总统很快作出决策,美国不能同时在太平洋战场和欧洲战场展开大规模的战役。他和顾问们决定,首先对付德国和意大利,在欧洲战场取得明显胜利时,再对付亚洲战场上的日本。

日本因此得以喘息,继续在亚洲和西太平洋上扩张势力。偷袭夏威夷后,日军又侵入香港、马尼拉和菲律宾。驻菲律宾的美军死伤惨重,马尼拉也在日军铁蹄下沦陷。1942年2月,日军在新加坡同英军作战,并取得重大胜利。

随后日军进入缅甸,向锡兰--即今天的斯里兰卡发起进攻,并占领了孟加拉湾的安达曼岛。日军似乎所向披靡。罗斯福总统向太平洋战场派遣了部分军队,并开始重建在珍珠港受到重创的美国海军。但是,他将大部分美军力量放在了欧洲。美军部队和物资赶赴欧洲,帮助英国抵抗希特勒指挥的德军。

美军将领想通过英吉利海峡进攻德国,希望速战速决,打败德国,但英国首相丘吉尔反对这样做,他和其他一些人担心这样做可能会失败。所以,英军和美军向在北非的德国和意大利军队发动进攻,并取得了胜利。随后,英美联军通过地中海,向意大利西西里岛上的敌军发动进攻。

几个星期之后,英美联军将德国军队从西西里岛赶回了意大利本土。联军随后攻入意大利。希特勒不能加强在北非和意大利的军力,因为德国当时正在与苏联进行艰苦作战。希特勒在二战初期作出的进攻苏联的决定是一个严重的错误,因为这样一来,德军的人员和物资就被分散了。

希特勒原想通过一次大规模进攻迅速拿下苏联,但是,他失败了,而这一失败,使他损失了本可以在北非和意大利战役中取得胜利的宝贵的军力和物资。

德国对苏联的进攻起初曾取得巨大成功。1941年中期,三百多万德军进攻苏联,占领了乌克兰,控制了基辅,并向苏联腹地深入。然而,第二年形势发生了变化。苏联军队在朱可夫元帅的领导下,在斯大林格勒(也就是现在的伏尔加格勒)进行了艰苦的抵抗,并取得胜利。在此后的几个寒冷的冬月里,大量德国士兵被饿死或冻死。

朱可夫将军率领军队发动进攻击退了德军,苏联的其它军队则打退了德军对列宁格勒(也就是现在的圣彼得堡)的进攻。到1944年年中,苏联境内的德军已经开始全线撤退。而苏军则准备将他们赶出苏联,然后反过来攻入德国。苏德战争十分惨烈,大量的士兵和平民在战争中丧生。

第二次世界大战并不局限于陆地,在海洋上同样战斗激烈。德国海军在二战期间的主要目标是要阻止美国向英国运送战争物资、食品和援军。起初,德国海军取得了很大的成功,由于没有多少美国船只能突破德军封锁,通过北大西洋运食品到英国,英国1941年饱受饥饿的折磨。

德国潜艇是对在大西洋航行船只的最大威胁,这些潜艇可以藏在水面以下,在对方没有丝毫察觉的时候发动袭击。德国潜艇的这种威胁一直没人能对付,直到1943年新技术的出现。盟国科学家改善了声纳和雷达技术,使船只能够探测到水上和水下的德国潜艇,这样,越来越多的德国潜艇被发现并被摧毁,盟军慢慢获得了大西洋的控制权。

在二战中,盟军与德国打了许多传统的海战,但飞机也开始在海战中发挥越来越重要的作用。1941年5月27日,在从航空母舰起飞的飞机的帮助下,英国战舰击沉了德国威力巨大的俾斯麦号战舰。

二战期间欧洲最著名的空战发生在1940年的夏秋两季,那就是著名的不列颠空战。这一名称来自于英法军队从敦克尔克大撤退后英国首相丘吉尔向国会发表的演说。当时的广播说:"这是BBC国内新闻报导,今天下午,丘吉尔首相在下议院发表演说,他说 ‘正如魏刚将军所说的,法国战役已经结束,不列颠的战斗即将开始'。"

这次空战是二战开始以来空投炸弹最多的一次,也是历史上第一次完全意义上的空战。德国斯图卡式俯冲轰炸机向英国的造船基地、政治要地、机场和飞机制造厂进行猛烈轰炸。

德军飞行员驾驶着梅塞施米特式战斗机与英国皇家空军的飓风式和喷火式飞机激烈战斗。虽然双方飞行员的驾驶技术不相上下,但英国喷火式战斗机更具空中机动能力,帮助英国赢得了这场在英吉利海峡上空持续数月的战役。

英国空军的胜利有效阻止了德国试图向英国本土发起的"海狮计划"。1942年5月,英国皇家空军向德国扔下了一千枚炸弹。此后,美英空军又数次向德国本土和德国占领区进行炸弹空袭。美英空军轰炸了德国军事和工业中心,也轰炸了平民目标,以告诫德国人侵略政策带来的恶果。德国的科隆、德累斯顿和汉堡等大城市受到大面积破坏。盟军对德国的轰炸一直到1945年二战结束才停止。

二战开始的头几个月里,希特勒的胜利让全世界感到恐惧。希特勒和他的轴心国盟友取得了一个又一个战役的胜利,他们占领了西欧的大部分地区,侵入苏联,控制了北非,他们的潜艇还控制着大西洋。美军进入欧洲战场的头几个月,德国似乎仍然很强大,但形势开始发生逆转。

1942年11月,德国的势力达到顶峰,但在那以后,强大的德国战争机器开始减速。德国和它的轴心国盟友意大利1943年上半年损失巨大。德国在对苏联作战中的损失尤其惨重,16万德军在斯大林格勒战役中阵亡,还有11万以上的人投降。

美英联军在北非俘虏了25万德军和意大利军,更多的德国和意大利军人在西西里岛和意大利本土被杀或被俘。德国潜艇在北大西洋上不断被击沉,更多的盟军和军用物资得以进入英国。到1943年底,希特勒和他的军队不再那么强大了,但德国仍然占领着法国、比利时和西欧大部分地区。

如今是盟军从英国出发,进入德控欧洲地区的时候了。盟军制订了一项历史上最大规模的军事进攻计划,以打破德国对欧洲的控制,并最终取得战争的胜利。

美国的艾森豪威尔将军说:"西欧的人民:今天早晨,盟军远征军在法国的海岸登陆,这次登陆是世界各国为解放欧洲所采取行动的一部分,尽管盟军远征军第一个解放的可能不是你的国家,但你们的解放就要来到了。"

这次大规模的军事进攻就是著名的诺曼底登陆。

网友的学习评论(0条):
版权所有©2003-2018 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
网站备案:苏ICP备05000269号-1中国工业和信息化部网站备案查询
广播台