官方APP下载:英语全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英语学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
网红英语口语课程——OMG美语,2011-2016完整课程视频打包下载发布!1170课,12.3G
手机微信学英语
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学英语。
英语全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV英语学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
初级VIP会员
全站英语学习资料下载。
¥98元/12个月

#220: Ford Leads Nation After Nixon Resigns

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版) 
文章正文
同步字幕
U.S. Chief Justice Warren Burger administers the oath of office to Gerald Ford, whose wife, Betty, is at center
U.S. Chief Justice Warren Burger administers the oath of office to Gerald Ford, whose wife, Betty, is at center

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

This week in our series, we tell the story of the thirty-eighth president of the United States.

GERALD FORD: "Mr. Chief Justice, my dear friends, my fellow Americans, the oath that I have taken is the same oath that was taken by George Washington and by every president under the Constitution. But I assume the presidency under extraordinary circumstances, never before experienced by Americans."

(MUSIC)

Gerald Ford was sworn into office on August ninth, nineteen seventy-four. Ford was vice president to Richard Nixon, who had announced the day before that he would resign.

If Nixon had not resigned, he might have been removed from office. Congress had been moving to charge him with corruption in the Watergate case.

At his swearing-in ceremony, the new president spoke about the nation's future.

GERALD FORD: "My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over. Our Constitution works. Our great republic is a government of laws and not of men. Here the people rule."

He went on to say:

GERALD FORD: "As we bind up the internal wounds of Watergate -- more painful and more poisonous than those of foreign wars -- let us restore the 'Golden Rule' to our political process and let brotherly love purge our hearts of suspicion and of hate."

Gerald Ford became the only leader in American history to have served both as vice president and president without being elected.

Richard Nixon chose him as vice president in October nineteen-seventy-three. That was when Nixon's former vice president, Spiro Agnew, resigned because of criminal charges that he failed to pay his taxes.

When Nixon himself resigned, Ford became president.

Ford was a longtime congressman from the state of Michigan. He was well-liked by his congressional colleagues. His education was in economics and political science at the University of Michigan. Then he attended Yale Law School. During World War Two, he served as a Naval officer in the Pacific.

After the war, Ford entered politics. He was a member of the Republican Party. He was first elected to the House of Representatives in nineteen forty-eight. He won re-election twelve times. Republicans in the House elected him the minority leader during the administration of Democratic President Lyndon Johnson.

Ford was still minority leader when Richard Nixon, a fellow Republican, was elected president in nineteen sixty-eight. In his leadership position, Ford helped win approval of a number of Nixon's proposals. He became known for his strong loyalty to the president. It was no surprise, then, when Nixon named Ford as vice president.

Gerald Ford was an "accidental president." He came to office in a sudden turn of events. Almost as suddenly, he had to decide what to do about the former president.

After Nixon left office, he could have been charged with crimes for his part in covering up the events of Watergate. Instead, one month after Nixon resigned, President Ford settled the question. He pardoned Nixon for any crimes that he might have committed.

The pardoning of Nixon made many Americans angry. Some believed he should have been put on trial. They thought he might have answered more questions about Watergate if he had not been pardoned.

Ford said he pardoned Nixon in an effort to unite the country. For a while, though, the pardon only seemed to intensify the divisions.

REPRESENTATIVE ELIZABETH HOLTZMAN: "And I wondered if anyone had brought to your attention the fact that the Constitution specifically states that, even though somebody is impeached, that person shall nonetheless be liable to punishment according to law."

President Gerald Ford testifies at a House of Representatives hearing in 1974 on his pardon of Richard Nixon
President Gerald Ford testifies at a House of Representatives hearing in 1974 on his pardon of Richard Nixon

In October nineteen seventy-four, President Ford appeared before a congressional hearing on the pardon. He gave a strong response to questioning by Democratic Representative Elizabeth Holtzman.

GERALD FORD: "Mrs. Holtzman, I was fully cognizant of the fact that the president, on resignation, was accountable for any criminal charges. But I would like to say that the reason I gave the pardon was not as to Mr. Nixon himself. I repeat - and I repeat with emphasis: The purpose of the pardon was to try and get the United States, the Congress, the president, and the American people focusing on the serious problems we have, both at home and abroad.

"And I was absolutely convinced then, as I am now, that if we had had this series - an indictment, a trial, a conviction, and anything else that transpired after that - that the attention of the president, the congress, and the American people would have been diverted from the problems that we have to solve. And that was the principal reason for my granting of the pardon."

(MUSIC)

Anger about the pardon was still strong when President Ford made another controversial decision. He pardoned men who had illegally avoided military service in the Vietnam War.

Most of them were not sent to prison. Instead, they were offered a chance to do work for their communities. Many of the men, however, did not accept the president's offer. Some stayed in Canada or other countries where they had fled to avoid the draft.

President Ford received greater public support when he asked Congress to limit the activities of the nation's intelligence agencies. He hoped better control would prevent future administrations from abusing the constitutional rights of Americans, as Nixon had done.

On another issue, Ford, while serving as vice president, had described inflation as America's "public enemy number one." He had supported several measures to fight it. As president, however, an economic recession forced him to cancel some of those measures. Inflation decreased during the recession, but unemployment increased.

On foreign policy issues, Ford kept Henry Kissinger as secretary of state. Kissinger had won much praise for his service to Richard Nixon, including in the opening of diplomatic ties with Communist China.

But Kissinger had also received much criticism. Critics accused him of interfering with civil liberties in the name of national security. They also accused him of supporting the overthrow of the Marxist government of Salvador Allende in Chile.

By the time Ford became president, the United States and the Soviet Union had taken steps to try to limit the spread of nuclear weapons. Nixon and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev had signed two such agreements as part of the détente policy to ease Cold War tensions. Relations with China were also less tense than before.

U.S. Marine helicopter crewmen carry Vietnamese civilians to safety aboard the U.S.S. Blue Ridge on April 29, 1975. Their evacuation helicopter crashed on the deck of the amphibious command ship.
U.S. Marine helicopter crewmen carry Vietnamese civilians to safety aboard the U.S.S. Blue Ridge on April 29, 1975. Their evacuation helicopter crashed on the deck of the amphibious command ship.

American policy in Southeast Asia, however, had failed. Involvement in the Vietnam War had officially ended the year before Gerald Ford became president. But fighting continued between South Vietnam and communist forces from the North.

The peace agreement signed by the United States and North Vietnam in nineteen seventy-three left South Vietnam to defend itself. By nineteen seventy-five, South Vietnamese forces were clearly in danger of defeat.

President Ford tried to prevent a communist takeover. He asked Congress to approve seven hundred million dollars in military aid for South Vietnam. Congress said no. The American people were tired of paying for the war.

(SOUND)

Saigon, the South Vietnamese capital, fell to communist forces on April thirtieth, nineteen seventy-five.

President Ford ordered the rescue of American citizens and South Vietnamese who had supported the American efforts. Few people who saw those struggling to escape Saigon will ever forget that day.

MARINE AT AMERICAN EMBASSY: "Please stop pushing - one at a time."

Terrified Vietnamese were screaming for help at the American Embassy. Everyone was pushing, trying to escape the city. Some held on to overloaded military helicopters as the aircraft tried to take off.

As a signal to American citizens to prepare to leave, Armed Forces Radio had played the song "White Christmas."

(MUSIC: "White Christmas"/Bing Crosby)

Some were to go to an apartment building where a helicopter would pick them up from the roof. But other people also tried to get onto the helicopter -- a scene captured in a famous news photo of the fall of Saigon.

The former South Vietnamese capital was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.

(MUSIC)

In the Middle East, Henry Kissinger led negotiations after the nineteen seventy-three Arab-Israeli war. Israel agreed to give up some captured territory. In return, the United States promised not to recognize or deal with the Palestine Liberation Organization unless the PLO met certain conditions.

In September nineteen seventy-five, Israel and Egypt signed an agreement that included permission for American civilians to act as observers along the ceasefire lines. Henry Kissinger was praised for his peacemaking efforts, though peace in the Middle East would remain a challenge for future administrations.

(MUSIC)

At home, things seemed better as the presidential election campaign of nineteen seventy-six began. That year marked the nation's two hundredth birthday. The United States was not fighting any wars. Unemployment remained high, but inflation had eased. Most importantly, Gerald Ford had led the country through the difficult period after Watergate.

The nineteen seventy-six election will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

___

Contributing: Jerilyn Watson

This was program #220. For earlier programs, type "Making of a Nation" in quotation marks in the search box at the top of the page.

今天我们要讲述美国第三十八届总统福特的故事。

福特说:"首席大法官先生,我亲爱的朋友们,我的美国同胞们,我像华盛顿总统及历任总统一样,对着宪法宣誓就职。但在美国历史上,从没有人像我一样在这种特殊情况下当上总统。"

这是杰拉尔德.福特在1974年8月9日宣誓就职时所说的话。福特本来在尼克松政府中担任副总统。他在尼克松宣布辞职的第二天当上了总统。当时,尼克松如果不辞职的话很有可能被弹劾,因为美国国会已经开始筹划针对他在水门事件中的腐败行为而起诉他。

福特在就职讲话中谈到了国家的未来。他说:"美国同胞们,漫长的噩梦已经结束。我们的宪法发挥了作用。我们伟大的共和国是一个法治政府,不是人治政府。在这里,人民做主。"他接着说:"如今,我们正在包扎水门事件在我们心里留下的伤口,这种伤害比在外国打仗造成的伤害更痛苦,毒性更大。不过与此同时,让我们恢复我们政治程序中的"金科玉律",让兄弟般的爱清除我们心中的猜疑和仇恨。"

福特是美国历史上唯一一个未经选举就当上副总统,又未经选举就成为总统的领导人。尼克松1973年10月挑选福特为副总统,因为原本的副总统阿格纽因为被控逃税而引咎辞职。尼克松自己也辞职后,福特成了总统。

福特曾在很长一段时间里担任密西根州的众议员。他在国会的同僚中人缘很好。他曾在密西根大学学习经济及政治学,之后又就读耶鲁法学院。在二战中,他曾是驻太平洋战区的海军军官。

战后,福特进入政坛,他是共和党人,1948年第一次当选众议员,之后连任12次。在民主党人约翰逊当总统的时候,众议院共和党人推选福特为少数派领袖。共和党人尼克松1968年当选总统时,福特仍然是国会里的少数派领袖。福特利用自己的领导地位帮助尼克松通过了多项法案,以对总统的忠诚而闻名。因此,尼克松会任命福特为副总统也就不足为奇了。

福特是个"意外总统"。他在一件突发事件后当上了总统,又马上要面对一个问题,就是怎么处理尼克松。尼克松下台后本来有可能被控参与掩盖水门事件。然而,尼克松辞职一个月后,福特总统就解决了这个问题--他赦免了尼克松可能犯过的罪。美国民众对此非常愤怒。有人觉得尼克松应该被送上法庭受审。他们相信,如果尼克松没被赦免,他就不得不回答更多关于水门事件的问题。

福特说,他赦免尼克松是为了让美国人团结起来,然而,他的做法在一段时间内反而加剧了社会的分裂。1974年10月,福特出席国会就赦免尼克松举行的听证会,对众议员霍尔茨曼的质问做出了态度强硬的回答。

霍尔茨曼问:"我想知道,到底有没有人提醒过你,美国宪法明确规定,即使在被弹劾之后,政府官员仍然应依法受到惩罚。"福特回答说:"霍尔茨曼女士,我完全明白,总统即使辞职也要对刑事指控负责,但我想说,这个赦免针对的并不是尼克松先生本人。我再说一遍,再强调一遍:赦免的目的是要让美国、国会、总统和人民把注意力放在内政外交的重要议题上。"

福特还说:"我当时和现在都绝对相信, 如果不赦免尼克松,而是按照程序,起诉,审判,定罪,以及面对这一切所引发的后果,那么,总统、国会和美国人民的注意力就会被转移,就无法集中精力处理那些我们本该去解决的问题。这才是我赦免尼克松的主要原因。"

就在人民对赦免尼克松的决定依然忿忿不平的时候,福特又做了一个引发争议的决定,那就是,他赦免了非法逃避越战兵役的人,其中大部分不用去坐牢,而是换成在社区里从事劳动感化工作。不过,许多人并没有领总统的情。一些逃到加拿大等国家去逃避兵役的人选择继续生活在国外。

美国总统福特是美国历史上唯一一个未经选举就当上了副总统和总统的领导人,他上任后赦免了因水门事件而辞职的尼克松总统,这一决定当时被很多人垢病。不过,他后来提出,国会应该限制美国情报机构的活动,这一提议得到了公众的支持。福特这么做是希望更好地控制情报机构,防止以后的行政当局像尼克松那样去伤害宪法赋予美国人的权利。

另外,福特在担任副总统时曾把通货膨胀形容为"美国的头号公敌",并支持实行一些降低通胀的措施。不过,在他当上总统后,美国处于经济萧条中,现实情况让他不得不取消了当初的一些抑制通胀的措施。经济衰退期间通胀率下降,但失业率升高了。

在外交方面上,福特留任了尼克松当政时的国务卿--基辛格。基辛格为尼克松的政策出力不少,包括他为美中建交所作的贡献,这也为他赢得了赞誉。不过,基辛格也受到很多批评。批评者指责他以国家安全的名义干涉公民自由。他们还指责他支持智利政变,为推翻那里的马克思主义阿连德政府提供支持。

另外,在福特就任总统时,美国和苏联已经采取措施,设法限制核武器扩散。尼克松和苏联领导人勃列日涅夫签署了两个这方面的协议,以缓和冷战的紧张局势。美国与中国的关系也没有以前那么紧张了。然而,美国在东南亚的政策却失败了。虽然在福特上台的前一年美国已正式脱离越战,但北越共产党军队同南越还在打仗。

美国和北越1973年签署和平协议,让南越自生自灭。到1975年的时候,南越面临被北越打败的危险。福特为阻止共产党夺取对整个越南的控制权,要求国会拨款7亿美元,为南越提供军事援助,结果遭到了国会的拒绝。美国人民也厌倦了为战争埋单。

1975年4月30号,南越首都西贡被越共占领。福特下令救出那里的美国公民和曾支持美国的南越人。人们拼命逃亡,想离开西贡,那场景真是怵目惊心。

惊慌失措的越南人哭喊着,希望美国使馆能帮助他们。每个人都在向外挤,想逃离西贡。一些人拼命抓住已经超载的军用直升机,希望这些飞机能把他们带出西贡。美国空军广播电台播放歌曲"白色圣诞节",示意美国公民快做好准备,从西贡撤离。

一些人按计划跑到一座公寓楼去,那里有直升机,从楼顶接他们,但是其他人也想上飞机,这一幕被拍摄下来,成为见证西贡沦陷的著名新闻照片。西贡被北越占领后,改名为胡志明市。

在中东地区,1973年爆发阿拉伯-以色列战争,基辛格主导了战后谈判。以色列同意放弃一些占领领土。作为回报,美国承诺,除非巴勒斯坦解放组织答应并满足一些条件,否则美国不承认巴解组织,也不会和这个组织打交道。

1975年9月,以色列和埃及签署了一项协议,内容包括允许美国平民在停火线附近充当观察员。基辛格推动中东和平的努力受到了称赞,尽管中东和平将成为后来历届美国政府都要面对的挑战。

美国国内状况在1976年总统大选开始时似乎已经出现了好转。这一年是美国建国200周年。当时美国没有打仗,虽然失业率居高不下,但通货膨胀有所缓解。最重要的是,福特领导美国走过了水门事件后的那段艰难时期。

网友的学习评论(0条):
版权所有©2003-2018 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
网站备案:苏ICP备05000269号-1中国工业和信息化部网站备案查询
广播台