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#31: How a Dispute Helped Lead to Modern Party System

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton had opposing ideas about how the new nation should be governed. Their dispute helped create the system of political parties in the United States. This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Blake Lanum have more in our story of these two early American leaders.

在上次的建国史话中,我们讲到,在美国第一届总统乔治·华盛顿任期里,美国的两大政党逐渐形成,分别由当时的财政部长亚历山大·汉密尔顿和当时的国务卿托马斯·杰斐逊领导。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The Federalist Party, led by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, supported a strong national government with a powerful president and courts. Federalists thought men of money and position should rule the country.

亚历山大·汉密尔顿领导的联邦党主张设置强大的联邦政府,总统和法院,他们认为,国家应该由有权有势者统治。

And they did in the early seventeen nineties. Federalists controlled the Congress. They also had great influence over the nation's first president, George Washington.

十八世纪九十年代早期,联邦党声势浩大,不仅控制着国会,就连第一届总统乔治·华盛顿也深受他们的影响。

The Republicans, led by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, did not want a strong national government with unlimited powers. And they believed political power should be spread throughout the population.

与此同时,托马斯·杰斐逊领导的共和党则反对让一个强大的联邦政府享有无限的权力。他们认为,政治权力应该分配给民众。

The power of the press grew over time. This Pennsylvania Packet newspaper in 1781 published letters by George Washington and Alexander Hamilton.
The power of the press grew over time. This Pennsylvania Packet newspaper in 1781 published letters by George Washington and Alexander Hamilton.

VOICE ONE:

The two sides carried on a war of words in their party newspapers. Historians believe Hamilton himself wrote much of what appeared in the Federalist paper. Jefferson, they believe, acted mostly as an adviser to the Republican paper.

双方利用各自的党报,展开了激烈论战。历史学家相信,联邦文集中的大部分文章都是汉密尔顿本人撰写的,而杰斐逊却主要充当了共和党报纸的顾问。

Both papers carried unsigned articles attacking the opposition. Both printed stories that were false. At times, the attacks were personal. Many people felt two cabinet secretaries should be above that kind of public fighting.

双方的报纸都刊登不署名文章,抨击对手,有时报导并不属实,甚至夹杂着人身攻击。很多人都觉得,这种公开冲突不符合两位内阁大员的身份。

VOICE TWO:

Toward the end of president Washington's first administration, he received a letter from Jefferson. The Secretary of State said he planned to resign. He said he disagreed with most of the administration's national and foreign policies. He did not name Hamilton. It was not necessary. Washington knew what he meant. For Hamilton was the chief planner of those policies.

第一届任期即将结束的时候,乔治·华盛顿总统收到了国务卿托马斯·杰斐逊的来信。杰斐逊在信中说,他对政府的大部分国内和外交政策无法苟同,因此打算辞职。他没有指名道姓,不过也没有这种必要,华盛顿明白他的意思,因为那些政策的主要制定者都是汉密尔顿。

The president tried to make peace between the two men. He liked them and respected them. He believed the new nation needed the skills of both men. However, the dispute had gone too far. It was now more than just a question of two strong men who could not agree. It was a battle of two completely different philosophies of government.

乔治·华盛顿试图在汉密尔顿和杰斐逊之间进行调和。这两个人都是他非常欣赏和器重的人,他认为,这两个人都是国家栋梁。不过,汉密尔顿和杰斐逊之间的分歧已经超越了个人之间的矛盾,演变为两种截然不同的政治理念的撞击。

VOICE ONE:

Philip Freneau's National Gazette was the first official Republican newspaper. During its two-year existence, it was the leading critic of Federalist policies.
Philip Freneau's National Gazette was the first official Republican newspaper. During its two-year existence, it was the leading critic of Federalist policies.

Washington did not succeed in making peace between Jefferson and Hamilton. But Jefferson decided not to resign. In a letter to his daughter, Jefferson said: "the attacks on me have changed a decision which I did not think could possibly be changed. I must remain and fight."

华盛顿虽然没能促成杰斐逊和汉密尔顿的和解,但是后来杰斐逊自己放弃了辞职的念头。他在给女儿的信中说,“对我的攻击让我改变了我原本以为无法改变的决定。我要留下来继续斗争。”

The idea of organized political parties was new in the United States. There were no laws saying what they could or could not do. There were no restrictions on the political activities of government officials. So, while continuing to serve as Secretary of State, Jefferson began working to get his supporters elected to Congress. He believed that was the only way to fight Hamilton. National elections were set for seventeen ninety-two.

当时在美国,有组织的政党还是一个新鲜事物,没有规范政党行为的立法,政府官员的政治活动也不受任何限制。因此,杰斐逊在担任国务卿期间,积极帮助自己的支持者进入国会。他认为,这是跟汉密尔顿抗衡的唯一途径。美国大选定于1792年举行。

VOICE TWO:

There was no dispute about the highest office. In seventeen ninety-two, everyone wanted George Washington to be elected president again. However, many Republicans saw no reason to re-elect John Adams as vice president. Adams was a patriot and had served his country well. But he was not democratic. He made no secret of his opinion that men born to the upper class should rule.

1792年的时候,总统人选没有任何争议,大家都希望乔治·华盛顿连任。然而,很多共和党人觉得,约翰·亚当斯不适合继续担任副总统的职务。亚当斯这个人很爱国,也为国家做了很多贡献,但是他不赞成民主,公开主张贵族统治。

Republicans had another reason to campaign against the Federalists. Hamilton's financial policies made it possible for bankers and other money lenders to invest in all kinds of deals. One man did this with information he got as a high-level Treasury Department official. His investments turned bad and his business failed. This caused other businesses to fail. There was a financial crash in New York City, the center of business in the United States.

共和党人参加竞选还有另外一个原因。根据汉密尔顿的金融政策,银行家和其他从事贷款的人都可以对任何买卖进行投资,财政部的一名高级官员按照自己掌握的信息投资,结果失败,不仅自己倒霉,还导致了其他企业的破产,使美国商业中心纽约的金融行业出现了崩溃。

VOICE ONE:

The Federalists were strong in the northeast. But the Republicans were gaining strength everywhere else. The election of Republican representatives to Congress in seventeen ninety-two would make them an important force in the House of Representatives.

共和党准备在1792年国会选举中跟联邦党人一争高低。当时,美国东北部是联邦党人的天下,但是共和党人的势力在美国其他地方不断扩大。1792年共和党人进入国会,成为众议院里的重要力量。

George Washington
George Washington

The Republicans did not, however, win the vice presidency. That office went once again to Federalist John Adams. Perhaps the one thing that saved Adams was the belief of many Americans that President Washington wanted him again as vice president. Yet Adams did not win a clear victory. The electors from four states voted for Republican George Clinton of New York. One state voted for Jefferson, though he was not a candidate.

不过,共和党人并没有争取到副总统的位置,副总统继续由联邦党人约翰·亚当斯担任。亚当斯连任的原因之一是因为很多美国人相信,乔治·华盛顿总统希望亚当斯留任。尽管如此,亚当斯并没有大获全胜,13个州里,有四个州投了纽约州共和党人乔治·克林顿的票,还有一个州投票支持杰斐逊,虽然他并不是副总统的候选人。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The year seventeen ninety-three saw a change in Alexander Hamilton's political powers. The Republicans in the House of Representatives demanded answers to questions about his financial programs. Why did the Treasury Secretary refuse to give Congress all the facts about government plans to borrow, to lend, and to tax?

1793年,亚历山大·汉密尔顿的政治权力发生了变化。国会众议院的共和党人要求汉密尔顿就自己的金融项目对国会作出解释。一个国家的财政部长为什么拒绝将政府借债、贷款和收税的计划的所有事实告知国会呢?

For four years, the House had passed all the laws Hamilton asked for without being told why the laws were needed. In his opinion, that was the only way to govern. Now, the House wanted to know more.

在此之前的四年里,国会众议院对汉密尔顿言听计从,按照汉密尔顿的意思通过了种种立法。在汉密尔顿看来,这样做天经地义。然而,新一届众议院提出了知情权。

VOICE ONE:

Hamilton considered the request an insult. Yet he answered it. He produced four reports about Treasury Department activities. Republicans searched the reports for proof that Hamilton and his Federalist friends had been dishonest. They found no such proof. And they did not accuse him of taking money for himself. But they attacked him on several other issues.

汉密尔顿觉得这种要求是对他的侮辱,但还是就国会的问题做出了答复。他提交了四份报告,解释财政部的工作。共和党人在报告中仔细搜寻汉密尔顿和他的联邦党友人不老实的证据,结果什么也没有找到。他们没有指责汉密尔顿贪污枉法,而是在其他问题上对汉密尔顿发起了攻击。

For example, they said Hamilton had not followed President Washington's instructions for dealing with the nation's foreign loans.

比如说,国会共和党人提出,汉密尔顿在处理外债的问题上,没有遵循总统的指示。

They said he paid too much interest to the National Bank of the United States. And, they said he did not carefully obey laws passed by Congress concerning the use of government money.

他们说,汉密尔顿给美国中央银行的利息太高,而且没有严格遵守国会关于使用政府资金的立法。

VOICE TWO:

Federalist members of Congress answered the accusations. They declared again and again that the Republicans had not been able to prove even one criminal act by the Treasury Secretary.

国会里的联邦党人奋起反击。他们三番五次地重申,共和党人无法证明汉密尔顿有任何犯罪行为。

The attempt to force Hamilton out of office failed. But Hamilton himself was ready to leave. He was satisfied with the work he had done. More than any other man, he had shaped the policies of the United States for the first five years of its existence. He was sure the young nation would continue to be governed by the political ideas he supported. Hamilton went to New York City to work as a lawyer and spend more time with his family.

共和党人企图把汉密尔顿赶下台,最终以失败告终。不过,汉密尔顿对自己的工作成绩感到满意,因此萌生去意。美国建国头五年,对美国政策影响最多的人非汉密尔顿莫属。汉密尔顿相信,美国政府一定会延续他的政治理念,他后来到纽约去当律师,用更多的时间陪伴家人。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Most Americans were not excited by the debate between Federalists and Republicans on such issues as the Bank of the United States. Farmers and laborers did not understand economics. But the French Revolution was something else.

大多数美国人对联邦党人和共和党人有关中央银行等问题的辩论并不感兴趣。普通农民和劳工不懂经济。然而,法国大革命就不一样了。

Federalists opposed the French Revolution. They denounced the violence and the murder of the king and queen. They also wanted closer economic and political ties with Britain. Republicans welcomed the revolution. They saw it as a fight for liberty and democracy -- the same ideas they fought for against Britain. Besides, they said, Britain was no friend of America.

联邦党人反对法国大革命。他们对暴力冲突和杀死国王王后的做法表示谴责。他们还主张加强跟英国的经济和政治关系。与此同时,共和党人却对法国大革命表示支持,认为这是一场自由民主之战,跟美国摆脱英国统治的独立战争如出一辙。他们还指出,英国并非美国的朋友。

Britain still held land in the western United States in violation of the peace treaty between the two countries. Britain still paid Native American Indians to kill White settlers in frontier areas. And Britain still took sailors off American ships and forced them to serve in its Navy.

当时,英国违反两国间的和平协议,依旧控制着美国西部的土地。英国继续出钱,让印第安人杀死西部的白人定居者。此外,英国还强迫美国船员加入英国海军服役。

VOICE TWO:

The revolution in France put the United States in a difficult situation. The situation became worse when the kings of Europe sent their armies against the new French republic. The United States had a treaty with France. It had agreed to aid France if France were attacked. But President Washington firmly believed the United States should not become involved in the politics of Europe. So he declared the United States would remain neutral.

法国大革命让美国陷入了尴尬的境地,欧洲国家的国王们对法兰西共和国开战后,美国更是进退维谷。美国跟法国有协议,如果法国受到攻击,美国就要出兵协助,但是乔治·华盛顿坚信,美国不应该介入欧洲政治,因此他宣布,美国保持中立。

VOICE ONE:

The declaration was a victory for the Federalists. They still had a great deal of influence over President Washington. But what would they do after seventeen ninety-six? Washington's second term would come to an end that year. And he had announced he would not run again.

乔治·华盛顿在这个问题上的立场代表了联邦党人的胜利,说明他们对华盛顿还有一定的影响力。不过,1796年以后怎么办呢?届时,华盛顿任期满了,而且他已经宣布不再竞选连任。

At that time, the Constitution did not limit the number of presidential terms. Yet, George Washington felt two was enough. Who was the most likely candidate to succeed him? That will be our story next week.

虽然当时的宪法并没有限制总统可以连任几届,但是乔治·华盛顿觉得,两任足够了。谁最有可能接任总统职务呢?我们将在下一次的美国史话中介绍。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Christine Johnson. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Blake Lanum. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts are at www.unsv.com.

网友的学习评论(3条):
作者:xuding45
In the early of American history the modern party system had form. Two men took a important act in party system. Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton had many disputes in how a government ruled the United States. Alexander hamilton thought elites ruled the nation but Thomas Jefferson thought the people should had the power in the nation.
作者:Alumni
it is not untill finishing this section that i know the terms of " morden party system" in the United States. it came into formation extremely in the need of human nature. There were two sides. One for Alexander Hamilton who thought that men of money and position would rule the country . And second for Tomas Jefferson who insisted political power should be spread throughout the population. Disbutes happened so the modern party system was born.
作者:hliu
Both the two strong knew the power of the press, and how to win support by utilizing it. Fighting alone is impossible to win.
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