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#34: Jefferson Is Elected President in 1800, But Only on the 36th Vote

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

The presidential election of eighteen hundred is our subject this week. The candidates included President John Adams of the Federalist Party and Vice President Thomas Jefferson of the Republican Party. Here with our story are Frank Oliver and Shep O'Neal.

在上次的建国史话中,我们讲到,1800年美国总统大选主要是现任总统---联邦党人约翰.亚当斯和现任副总统-共和党人托马斯.杰斐逊之间的较量。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

John Adams, in a detail from a portrait by the 19th century artist Alonzo Chappel
John Adams, in a detail from a portrait by the 19th century artist Alonzo Chappel

As president, John Adams was head of the Federalist Party. But the power of that position belonged, in fact, to former treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton.

亚当斯作为总统,虽然名义上是联邦党的领袖,但实际上,实权却掌握在前财政部长亚历山大.汉密尔顿的手中。

For this and other reasons, Adams did not like Hamilton. He said: "Thomas Jefferson will be a good president, if elected. I would rather be a minister to Europe under Jefferson than to be a president controlled by Hamilton."

基于种种原因,亚当斯很不喜欢汉密尔顿。他曾说过,“如果当选,托马斯.杰斐逊会是一个非常出色的总统。我宁可在他的麾下担任派驻欧洲的使节,也不愿意做一个被汉密尔顿掌控的总统。”

Hamilton did not like Adams. He did everything he could to block Adams from becoming president again. He gave his support to another Federalist candidate, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina.

汉密尔顿也不喜欢亚当斯,他竭尽全力,防止亚当斯再次当选。他支持联邦党的另外一位候选人,南卡罗来纳州的查尔斯.平克尼。

Under the electoral system of that time, the candidate with the most votes became president. The candidate with the second highest number of votes became vice president.

根据当时的选举程序,得票最多的候选人当选总统,得票次多的候选人担任副总统。

VOICE ONE:

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

A Federalist victory in the election of eighteen hundred would not be easy. The Republicans had a very strong and popular candidate -- Thomas Jefferson. So, Federalist Party leaders attempted to change the electoral system.

联邦党人要想在1800年的总统大选中获胜并不简单。共和党总统候选人托马斯.杰斐逊深得人心,呼声极高。联邦党人因此想在选举程序上下功夫。

The Constitution said state legislatures were to choose electors to vote for president. The Federalists tried to gain control over the legislatures' decisions.

美国宪法规定,总统由州议会指定的选举人投票选举产生。联邦党人因此试图在选举人的人选上做手脚。

They wanted Congress to create a special committee to rule if an elector had -- or did not have -- the right to vote. The committee could say if an elector's vote should be counted or thrown away.

他们希望国会建立一个特别委员会,对选举人的投票资格进行审核。这个特别委员会可以决定,某个选举人的选票是否有效。

VOICE TWO:

The committee would have six members from the Senate and six members from the House of Representatives. The thirteenth member would be the chief justice of the United States. Creating such a committee violated the Constitution. Federalist leaders knew this. So, they wanted Congress to approve the committee, but keep the measure secret until after the election.

这个特别委员会包括六名参议员、六名众议员,外加美国最高法院首席大法官。联邦党领袖很清楚,建立这个委员会是违宪的,所以他们希望得到国会的批准,但是选举前需要保密。

The Federalists held a majority of seats in the Senate. And the Senate voted to approve the proposal. But some Federalist members of the House of Representatives denounced it. They made many changes in the proposal. The Senate refused to accept the changes. Without agreement by both houses of Congress, the bill died.

联邦党人在参议院占多数席位,参议院投票通过了这项提案。但是众议院里的一些联邦党人提出异议,对提案进行了很多改动,参议院不愿意接受这些改动,国会两院无法达成共识,使提案无果而终。

Federalist leaders saw their hopes for an election victory begin to disappear.

联邦党人在大选中获胜的希望也随之化为泡影。

VOICE ONE:

Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr

By the summer of eighteen hundred, Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party had strong leaders in every state. It had many newspapers to express party ideas. Jefferson decided to take a holiday at Monticello, his farm in Virginia.

1800年夏天,托马斯.杰斐逊领导的共和党的领袖人物遍布各州,而且还有不少党报。杰斐逊决定回到位于维吉尼亚蒙蒂塞洛的农场里休假。

The Republican Party leader in New York was a lawyer, Aaron Burr. Burr had served as an officer under General George Washington during America's war for independence from Britain. After the war, he joined the Federalist Party and was elected to the United States Senate. Later, he changed parties and became a Republican.

当时,共和党在纽约的领袖是律师出身的艾伦.伯尔。美国独立战争期间,伯尔曾是乔治.华盛顿的部下,担任大陆军指挥官,战争结束后加入联邦党,被选入参议院,后来改弦易张,投奔共和党。

In eighteen hundred, a group of both Federalists and Republicans supported him as a candidate for president.

1800年大选期间,一些联邦党人和一些共和党人都支持伯尔参加总统选举。

VOICE TWO:

Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton were bitter enemies. When Hamilton learned of a plan by his own party to elect Burr president, instead of Jefferson, his reaction was quick and sharp.

伯尔跟汉密尔顿是死对头。汉密尔顿得知自己领导的联邦党居然要推选伯尔,而不是杰斐逊的消息后,做出了异常激烈的反应。

"Anybody," he said, "even Thomas Jefferson, is better than Aaron Burr. Jefferson is not dangerous. Burr is. Jefferson's ideas of government are wrong. But at least he is an honest man. Burr is a man without honesty and character. He will destroy America."

他说,“任何人,甚至连托马斯.杰斐逊,都要比艾伦.伯尔强。杰斐逊并不危险,但是伯尔很危险。杰斐逊关于政府的看法是错误的,但至少他是一个诚实的人。伯尔则是一个没有诚信的人,会毁了美国。”

VOICE ONE:

In 1800, President John Adams sent a letter to federal department heads ordering the relocation of government offices from Philadelphia to the District of Columbia
In 1800, President John Adams sent a letter to federal department heads ordering the relocation of government offices from Philadelphia to the District of Columbia

The president elected in eighteen hundred would govern in a new capital city. The national government would move from Philadelphia to Washington, a newly built city in the District of Columbia. It was on the Potomac River between the states of Maryland and Virginia.

当时,美国正准备将首都从费城迁往新建的城市华盛顿特区,座落在马里兰州和维吉尼亚州中间的波托马克河畔。

When President Adams and his wife Abigail arrived in Washington, D.C., they found a frontier town. There were few houses or streets. Missus Adams could not believe what she saw. She wrote to her daughter:

亚当斯总统携夫人来到华盛顿特区,看到的是一个很原始的城镇,住房和街道都十分稀少。亚当斯夫人不敢相信眼前的一切。

"This is a city only because we call it a city. Our house here is very big. But the rooms are not finished. There is almost no furniture. There are not enough lamps for light."

她在写给女儿的信中说,“这里之所以算个城市,完全是因为我们这么叫它,我们的房子虽然很大,但是许多房间都没有完工,几乎没什么家具,也没有足够的台灯照明。”

VOICE TWO:

A street called Pennsylvania Avenue went from the president's house to the Capitol building where Congress would meet. On each side of the street -- where buildings stand today -- there were fields of mud.

宾夕法尼亚大道从总统府直通国会。如今,这条道路两旁建筑林立,但是当年却是泥地。

This was the new federal city, the new capital of the United States. This was where the winner of the presidential election of eighteen hundred would begin his term of office.

但不管怎么说,这里毕竟是美国的新都,1800年总统大选的获胜者将在这里开始他的任期。

VOICE ONE:

George Washington won America's first two presidential elections without opposition. John Adams won the third presidential election by three votes. This time, in eighteen hundred, there was no clear winner.

美国第一任总统乔治.华盛顿两次当选美国总统,都没有竞选对手;约翰.亚当斯当选第三届总统,靠的是区区三票的优势;1800年大选前,似乎看不出有哪位候选人稳操胜券。

When the electors' votes were counted, President Adams had sixty-five votes. But Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr each had seventy-three votes. So, under the Constitution, the House of Representatives would choose between Jefferson or Burr -- the candidates with the highest number of votes.

选票清点的结果显示,现任总统亚当斯65票,托马斯.杰斐逊和艾伦.伯尔分别获得73票。按照宪法的规定,在这种情况下,国会众议院要在杰斐逊和伯尔两人中做出取舍。

Each congressman could vote. But each state had just one vote. That vote would go to the candidate supported by a majority of congressmen from the state. A candidate had to receive a majority of the state votes to win. In eighteen hundred, that was nine of the sixteen states.

每位众议员都可以投票,然后按照他所代表的州汇总,哪位候选人在一个州里得票最多,这个州就算在他的名下,当时美国一共有十六个州,谁能争取到九个州的支持,就是最后的胜利者。

VOICE TWO:

The Federalists saw the situation as their last chance to control the presidency. They had two plans. They would try to block the Congress from electing either Jefferson or Burr as president. Then they would try to find a way to put executive power in the hands of a Federalist. If that plan failed, they were prepared to elect Burr.

联邦党人认为这是他们控制总统权力的最后一次机会。他们做好了两手准备:上策是阻止杰斐逊和伯尔当中的任何一个人当选,然后设法让联邦党人掌握行政大权;如果不成功,下策就是让伯尔击败杰斐逊,担任总统。

The Federalists tried to make people believe that Burr was working with them, against Jefferson. Burr denied this. In a letter to Jefferson, Burr wrote:

联邦党人希望造成一种假象,让民众觉得伯尔跟他们站在一起,同杰斐逊作对,但是遭到了伯尔的驳斥。

"Every Republican wants you to be president of the United States. Every good Republican wants to serve under you. I would be happy and honored to be your vice president. And, if you believe I could help you better in some other position, I would do so."

他在写给杰斐逊的信中说,“每一个共和党人都希望你出任总统,每一个优秀的共和党人都希望为你效力。给你当副总统,我会很高兴,也很荣幸。如果你觉得我担任副总统对你更有帮助的话,我义无反顾。”

VOICE ONE:

Tally of electoral votes for the 1800 presidential election
Tally of electoral votes for the 1800 presidential election

On February eleventh, the House of Representatives began to count votes, state by state. Eight states chose Jefferson. Six chose Burr. The representatives of two states -- Maryland and Vermont -- gave each man an equal number of votes. There was no majority within those states. So neither man won the votes of those states.

1800年2月11号,国会众议院开始一个州一个州地清点选票。结果是,八个州支持杰斐逊,六个州支持伯尔,在剩下的马里兰和佛蒙特两个州里,杰斐逊和伯尔得票数量一样,没有胜利者。

The voting continued. All that day and throughout the night the representatives voted. Twenty-seven times the count remained the same. Eight states for Jefferson. Six for Burr. Two undecided.

众议院只好一遍一遍地投票,一直继续到深夜,但是投了27次,依然没有变化,还是八个州支持杰斐逊,六个州支持伯尔,剩下两个州没有结果。

The next morning, the representatives decided to rest for four hours. The voting began again at noon. There was no change.

第二天早上,众议院决定休息四个小时,中午继续投票,但结果还是一样。

The thirteenth of February passed, then the fourteenth and fifteenth. Still no change. The House voted thirty-three times. It could not elect a president.

2月13号过去了,然后是14号,15号。国会众议院先后投票33次,还是没有选出新总统。

VOICE TWO:

A change in the vote of just one congressman from Maryland or Vermont could decide the contest.

只要马里兰或是佛蒙特两个州里的任何一个众议员改变主意,就能决出胜负。

Later, after the election, the representative from Delaware said he had met with two congressmen from Maryland and one from Vermont. All were Federalists. All had voted for Aaron Burr.

事后,德拉瓦州的一位议员说,他见到了马里兰的两位众议员和佛蒙特的一位众议员,三个人都是联邦党人,开始都投了伯尔的票。

The Delaware congressman said they claimed they spoke with a friend of Thomas Jefferson. He said they told Jefferson's friend they would change their votes, if Jefferson made certain promises.

他们自称见过杰斐逊的朋友,并表示,只要杰斐逊做出某些承诺,他们就可以改变立场,把票投给杰斐逊。

Jefferson denied that he had made any political promises. He said many men tried to get promises from him. But he said he told them all that he would never become president with his hands tied.

杰斐逊承认,很多人希望从他那里得到各种各样的承诺,但是被他一概回绝,因为他绝对不愿意做一个被捆住手脚的总统。

VOICE ONE:

History experts do not agree on what really happened. What is sure is that the House of Representatives voted for the thirty-sixth time on February seventeenth. Ten states, including Maryland and Vermont, voted for Thomas Jefferson. Four states voted for Aaron Burr.

Two states -- Delaware and South Carolina -- did not vote. But Jefferson had the majority he needed. He would be the new president.

这段时间里到底发生了些什么,没人可以肯定。但最后的结果是,国会众议院2月17号进行第36次投票,结果包括马里兰和佛蒙特在内的十个州支持杰斐逊,四个州支持伯尔,德拉瓦和南卡罗来纳没有投票。杰斐逊终于得到了当选所需要的多数州的支持,继华盛顿和亚当斯之后,当选为美国的第三位总统。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Harold Braverman and Christine Johnson. The narrators were Frank Oliver and Shep O'Neal. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, American history in VOA Special English. Our series can be found online with transcripts and MP3s at www.unsv.com.

网友的学习评论(4条):
作者:xuding45
Both John Adams and Aaron Burr joined in the presidential election. The Congress voted for the election again and again. At final John Adams got win in the competition.
作者:XsXSJ
Geogie Washinton ,then . John Adams, then Thomas Jefferson....
作者:Alumni
Congress was consisted of the Senate and the House of Representatives and the chief justice of the United States. It is made clear today.
作者:郑烈波
he would be the new president.
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