官方APP下载:英语全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英语学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
网红英语口语课程——OMG美语,2011-2016完整课程视频打包下载发布!1170课,12.3G
手机微信学英语
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学英语。
英语全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV英语学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
初级VIP会员
全站英语学习资料下载。
¥98元/12个月

#38: Jefferson Gets Louisiana Territory From France

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

In our last program, we talked about two proposals by President Thomas Jefferson. Congress approved both of them. One proposal ended some taxes. The other reduced the number of judges appointed by John Adams when he was president.

在上次的建国史话中,我们讲到,美国新总统托马斯.杰斐逊上任后,推出了两大提案:一是取消某些税务,二是减少上届总统约翰.亚当斯任命的法官人数。这两大提案都得到了国会的批准。

In the closing days of Adams' term, Congress passed a Judiciary Act. This act gave Adams the power to appoint as many judges as he wished. It was a way for the Federalist Party to keep control of one branch of government. The Federalists had lost the presidency and their majority in Congress to Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican party -- known today as the Democratic Party.

亚当斯总统任期的最后一段时间内,国会通过了一项司法法案,授权亚当斯随意任命法官。联邦党人因为失去了总统宝座和国会多数权,所以希望借此保住对司法部门的控制。

Now, Tony Riggs and Shep O'Neal continue the story of America's third president, Thomas Jefferson.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Actors dressed as Napoleon Bonaparte and Andrew Jackson in 2003 in New Orleans, during celebrations of the 200th anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase
Actors dressed as Napoleon Bonaparte and Andrew Jackson in 2003 in New Orleans, during celebrations of the 200th anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase

President Adams quickly created new courts and named new judges. Just as quickly, the Senate approved them. The papers of appointment were signed. However, some of the judges did not receive their papers, or commissions, before Thomas Jefferson was sworn-in. The new president refused to give them their commissions. One of the men was William Marbury. He asked the Supreme Court to decide his case.

根据这项司法法案,亚当斯总统迅速增设法院,增加法官。参议院也大开绿灯,立即签发任命文件。不过,有些法官在托马斯.杰斐逊宣誓就职之前没有拿到委任状。杰斐逊上任后拒绝向这些法官签发任命证书,其中一名法官名叫威廉.马伯里。他要求联邦最高法院就此做出裁决。

John Marshall, by Hiram Powers
John Marshall, by Hiram Powers

VOICE TWO:

The Chief Justice was John Marshall, a Federalist. Marshall thought about ordering the Republican administration to give Marbury his commission. On second thought, he decided not to. He knew the administration would refuse his order. And that would weaken the power of the Supreme Court.

联邦最高法院当时的首席大法官是联邦党人约翰.马歇尔。马歇尔原打算勒令共和党政府向马伯里颁发任命证书,但是转念一想,又改变了主意。他知道,杰斐逊政府一定会拒绝执行最高法院的裁决,这样一来,最高法院的权力难免会受到削弱。

Marshall believed the Supreme Court should have the right to veto bills passed by Congress and signed by the president. In the Marbury case, he saw a chance to put this idea into law.

马歇尔认为,联邦最高法院应该有权否决国会和总统签署的议案。他觉得,马伯里一案是一次绝好的机会,可以让他的想法变成法律。

VOICE ONE:

Marshall wrote his decision carefully. First, he said that Marbury did have a legal right to his judicial commission. Then, he said that Marbury had been denied this legal right. He said no one -- not even the president -- could take away a person's legal rights.

马歇尔经过慎重推敲,做出了如下裁决。首先,他表示,马伯里有权得到司法任命证书。他接着说,马伯里被剥夺了这一合法权利。他说,任何人,即使是总统,也不能剥夺个人的合法权利。

Next, Marshall noted that Marbury had taken his request to the Supreme Court under the terms of a law passed in seventeen eighty-nine. That law gave citizens the right to ask the high court to order action by any lower court or by any government official.

马歇尔接着写道:马伯里根据1789年的一项立法向最高法院提出申请。这项立法规定,公民有权要求最高法院命令下级法院或是政府官员采取行动。

The decision in the Marbury v. Madison case established the right of the courts to decide the constitutionality of the actions of the other two branches of government
The decision in the Marbury v. Madison case established the right of the courts to decide the constitutionality of the actions of the other two branches of government

Marshall explained that the Constitution carefully limits the powers of the Supreme Court. The court can hear direct requests involving diplomats and the separate states. It cannot rule on other cases until a lower court has ruled.

马歇尔解释说,宪法严格规定了最高法院的权限,最高法院只能听取涉及外交官员和各州的直接请求;除非下级法院已经做出裁决,否则最高法院不能直接插手。

So, Marshall said, the seventeen eighty-nine law permits Marbury to take his case directly to the Supreme Court. But the Constitution does not. The Constitution, he added, is the first law of the land. Therefore, the congressional law is unconstitutional and has no power.

马歇尔说,1789年的立法允许马伯里把案件直接提交最高法院,但是根据美国宪法,这样做是不可以的。他补充说,宪法是美国的基本大法。因此,国会立法实属违宪,没有法律效力。

VOICE TWO:

Chief Justice Marshall succeeded in doing all he hoped to do. He made clear that Marbury had a right to his judicial commission. He also saved himself from a battle with the administration. Most importantly, he claimed for the Supreme Court the power to rule on laws passed by Congress.

最高法院首席大法官马歇尔就此达到了自己的所有目的:第一,他清楚地表明,马伯里有权得到任命;第二,他避免了跟杰斐逊政府的一场争斗;第三,也是最重要的,他宣称,联邦最高法院有权就国会立法的有效性做出裁决。

President Jefferson understood the importance of Marshall's decision. He did not agree with it. He waited for the Supreme Court to use this new power.

Several times during Jefferson's presidency, Federalists claimed that laws passed by the Republican Congress violated the Constitution. But they never asked the Supreme Court to reject those laws.

杰斐逊总统意识到了马歇尔大法官这一裁决的重要性。他并不赞成,但他也在等待联邦最高法院行使这一权力。杰斐逊任期内,联邦党人曾多次提出,共和党控制的国会通过的立法违反了宪法,但是他们始终没有要求最高法院取消这些立法。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed in Paris on April 30, 1803
The Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed in Paris on April 30, 1803

During Jefferson's first term, the United States faced a serious problem in its relations with France.

杰斐逊总统第一个四年任期内,美国和法国的关系十分紧张。

France had signed a secret treaty with Spain. The treaty gave France control of a large area in North America -- the Louisiana Territory.

法国跟意大利签署了秘密协议,根据协议,北美路易斯安那的大片土地都处于法国的掌控之中。

Napoleon Bonaparte ruled France at that time. Jefferson did not want him in North America. He felt the French presence was a threat to the peace of the United States. He decided to try to buy parts of Louisiana.

当时,法国的统治者是拿破仑。杰斐逊不希望看到拿破仑的势力进入北美。他认为,法国的出现会对美国的和平构成威胁,因此决定收购路易斯安那的部分地区。

VOICE TWO:

Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris as a special negotiator.

Before sailing, Monroe met with the president and Secretary of State James Madison. They discussed what the United States position would be on every proposal France might make.

杰斐逊任命詹姆斯.门罗为特派员,前往巴黎进行谈判。动身前,门罗跟杰斐逊总统和麦迪逊国务卿一起,就法国可能提出的各种提案进行讨论,确定了美国的立场。

First, Monroe would try to buy as much territory east of the Mississippi River as France would sell. If France refused, then Monroe would try to buy an area near the mouth of the Mississippi River. The area was to be large enough for a port.

首先,只要法国肯卖,门罗就把密西西比河以东土地全都买下来。如果法国不答应,门罗就要设法将密西西比河口附近的一块地方买下来,将来在那里建一个港口。

VOICE ONE:

In this note to the newly appointed American minister to France, James Monroe, President Jefferson describes his reasons for wanting the city of New Orleans
In this note to the newly appointed American minister to France, James Monroe, President Jefferson describes his reasons for wanting the city of New Orleans

Monroe never had a chance to offer the American position. Napoleon had decided to sell everything to the Americans. He told his finance minister to give up Louisiana -- all of it. Napoleon needed money for a war with Britain.

不过,门罗根本没有机会说明美国的立场。拿破仑为了跟英国打仗,急等钱用,所以授权法国财政部长,把法国在北美大陆的土地统统卖给美国,包括整个路易斯安那。

James Monroe was happy to negotiate the purchase of Louisiana. They agreed on a price of eighty million francs for all the land drained by the great Mississippi River and all its many streams.

门罗欣然接受。双方最后达成协议,将密西西比河及其支流所灌溉的所有土地卖给美国,售价八千万法郎。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Federalists in the northeastern states opposed the decision to buy Louisiana. They feared it would weaken the power of the states of the northeast. Federalist leaders made a plan to form a new government of those states. But to succeed, they needed the state of New York.

然而,美国东北部的联邦党人反对购买路易斯安那。他们担心,这样做会使东北各州的势力受到削弱。联邦党领袖原计划在这些州建立一个新政府,但是纽约州的加入必不可少。

Vice President Aaron Burr was the political leader of New York and a candidate for New York governor. The Federalists believed Burr would win the election and support their plan. But Federalist leader Alexander Hamilton did not trust Burr. The two had been enemies for a long time.

美国副总统艾伦.伯尔是纽约州的政治领袖,也是纽约州长候选人。联邦党人相信,伯尔会赢得选举,并支持他们组建新政府的计划。但是联邦党人的另外一位重要领袖亚历山大.汉密尔顿不信任伯尔。他们两人长期敌对。

VOICE ONE:

Hamilton made some strong statements against Burr during the election campaign in New York. The comments later appeared in several newspapers. Burr lost the New York election. The Federalist plan died for a new government of northeastern states.

汉密尔顿在纽约选举过程中对伯尔提出严辞批判,他的话出现在很多报纸上。伯尔最后落选,联邦党人在东北各州组建新政府的计划也因此胎死腹中。

After the election, Burr asked Hamilton to admit or deny the comments he had made against Burr. Hamilton refused. The two men exchanged more notes. Burr was not satisfied with Hamilton's answers. He believed Hamilton had attacked his honor. Burr demanded a duel.

选举结束后,伯尔要求汉密尔顿收回先前的攻击性言论,被汉密尔顿一口回绝。两人此后多次交涉,但是汉密尔顿的解释始终不能让伯尔满意。他认为,汉密尔顿的言论伤害了自己的荣誉,要求跟汉密尔顿决斗。

VOICE TWO:

A duel is a fight, usually with guns. In those days, a duel was how a gentleman defended his honor. Hamilton opposed duels. His son had been killed in a duel. Yet he agreed to fight Burr on July eleventh, eighteen-oh-four.

当时,绅士们为了捍卫自身荣誉,往往会采取决斗的方式,一般都是用枪。汉密尔顿不赞成决斗,因为他儿子就是在一场决斗中被打死的。然而这次,他却接受了伯尔的挑战。

The two men met at Weehawken, New Jersey, just across the Hudson River from New York City. They would fight by the water's edge, at the bottom of a high rock wall.

决斗定于1804年7月11号进行,地点是纽约市哈得逊河对岸新泽西州的维豪肯。他们约好,在岸边一块高大的石墙底下见。

VOICE ONE:

Aaron Burr, by Jacques Jouvenal
Aaron Burr, by Jacques Jouvenal

The guns were loaded. Burr and Hamilton took their places. One of Hamilton's friends explained the rules. "Are you ready, gentlemen?" he asked. Both answered "yes." There was a moment of silence. He gave the signal. Burr and Hamilton raised their guns. Two shots split the air.

汉密尔顿和伯尔各就各位。子弹上膛。汉密尔顿的朋友宣布了决斗的规则。他最后问:“先生们,你们都准备好了吗?”两人都说“是的”。沉寂片刻后,裁判发出了决斗开始的信号。

Hamilton raised up on his toes, then fell to the ground. Burr remained standing. He looked at Hamilton with regret, then left. Hamilton died the next day.

伯尔和汉密尔顿同时举起手枪,两声枪响过后,汉密尔顿栽倒在地。伯尔用遗憾的眼神看了看汉密尔顿,转身离去。决斗第二天,汉密尔顿宣布死亡。

Newspapers throughout the nation reported Hamilton's death. Most people accepted the news calmly. To them, it was simply the sad end to an old, private dispute. But Burr's political enemies charged him with murder. The vice president fled to the southern state of Georgia.

美国各地报纸都报导了汉密尔顿去世的消息。大多数人听到他的死讯,并没有激烈的反应。在他们看来,这只不过是一场个人恩怨的悲惨结局。但是伯尔的政敌们却指控他犯下了杀人罪,伯尔因此逃往南部的乔治亚州避难。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The nation was preparing for the presidential election in a few months. Once again, the Republican Party chose Thomas Jefferson as its candidate for president. But Republicans refused to support Aaron Burr for vice president again. Instead, they chose George Clinton. Clinton had served as governor of New York seven times.

当时,美国总统大选在即。共和党人再次提名杰斐逊做为总统候选人,但是副总统的人选则由伯尔改为了当过七届纽约州长的乔治.克林顿。

The Federalist Party chose Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina as its candidate for president. It chose Rufus King of New York to be its vice presidential candidate.

联邦党人的总统和副总统候选人分别是南卡罗来纳州的平克尼和纽约州的鲁弗斯.金。

VOICE ONE:

The campaign was quiet. In those days, candidates did not make many speeches.

当年的选战十分平静,候选人不会到处演进。

Republican pamphlets told of the progress made during the past four years. The former Federalist administration raised taxes, they said. Jefferson ended many of the taxes. The Federalists borrowed millions of dollars. Jefferson borrowed none. And, Jefferson got the Louisiana Territory without going to war.

共和党人的宣传材料历数了杰斐逊政府过去四年里的政绩。他们说,以前联邦党人的政府增税,但是杰斐逊取消了很多税务;联邦党人让国家背负了数百万美元的债务,但是杰斐逊一分钱没借;此外,杰斐逊没动一枪一炮,就得到了路易斯安那。

The Federalists could not dispute these facts. They expected that Jefferson would be re-elected. But they were sure their candidate would get as many as forty electoral votes. The results shocked the Federalists. Jefferson received one hundred sixty-two electoral votes. Pinckney received just fourteen. Thomas Jefferson would be president for another four years.

这些都是事实,联邦党人无从辩驳。他们也知道,杰斐逊会当选连任。但是联邦党人觉得,自己的候选人怎么说也能得到40张选举人票。然而,选举结果让他们目瞪口呆。杰斐逊得到了162张选举人票,而联邦党候选人平克尼只有14票。接下来的四年,托马斯.杰斐逊将继续承担总统的重任。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Christine Johnson and Harold Braverman. The presenters were Tony Riggs and Shep O'Neal. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs can be found at www.unsv.com.

网友的学习评论(3条):
作者:xuding45
Tomas Jefferson bought Louisiana Territory From France. At the same time he avoid the war with France. During his first presidency he faced a importment matter. 'Marbury V.Madison' court gave a trouble for Jefferson' government. At final the supreme got a power which could rule the law by Congress.
作者:Alumni
Thomas Jefferson bought Louisiana territory in his first term of presidence. This was a great thing that American did.another interesting thing is the duel between Hamilton and Burr.
作者:hliu
Both Hamilton and Burr are ambitious and proud, they don't permit themselves to be controlled. They try to get the throne, or at least a position near it. But I cann't say their prides help them.
版权所有©2003-2018 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
网站备案:苏ICP备05000269号-1中国工业和信息化部网站备案查询
广播台