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#51: Monroe Doctrine Warns Europe Not to Interfere in the Americas

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

James Monroe
James Monroe

As we said last week, Spain asked other European countries to help it put down rebellion among Spanish colonies in Latin America. Some of these colonies had overthrown their Spanish rulers and declared themselves independent.

上次我们讲到,西班牙向其它欧洲国家求援,希望他们伸出援手,协助镇压西班牙在拉丁美洲殖民地的反叛浪潮,其中一些西班牙殖民地推翻了西班牙的统治者,宣布独立。

Britain wanted no part of the Spanish proposal. It was trading heavily with these new Latin American countries. Spanish or even French control of this area would destroy or limit this trade.

英国不愿插手此事,因为当时,英国跟拉美新独立的国家之间有很多贸易往来,西班牙,甚至是法国对当地的控制都会掐断、至少是阻塞英国的财路。

So Britain proposed a joint statement with the United States to say that neither country wanted any of Spain's territory in the New World. Britain also wanted the United States to join in opposing the transfer of any of Spain's American territories to any other power in Europe.

英国因此建议跟美国发表联合声明,宣布两国都不想得到西班牙在拉美地区的领土。英国还希望美国能跟自己一起,反对西班牙将美洲大陆的领土转让给其他欧洲强国。

Now, Maurice Joyce and Harry Monroe continue the story.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams

Most of President James Monroe's advisers urged him to accept the British offer. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams opposed it. He did not believe the United States should tie itself to any European power, even Britain.

当时的美国总统是詹姆斯.门罗。给门罗出谋划策的智囊团里,大多数人主张接受英国的提议,只有国务卿约翰.昆西.亚当斯反对。亚当斯认为,美国不应该把自己跟任何欧洲国家拴在一起,哪怕是英国。

Monroe accepted the advice of his secretary of state. He included Adams' ideas in his message to Congress in December eighteen twenty-three. This part of the message became known as the Monroe Doctrine.

门罗最终采纳了亚当斯的意见,并将亚当斯的意见写进了1823年提交国会的报告中,这就是著名的“门罗主义”。

The president said no European power should, in the future, try to establish a colony anywhere in the Americas. He said the political system of the European powers was very different from that of the Americas. Monroe said any attempt to extend this European system to any of the Americas would threaten the peace and safety of the United States.

门罗提出,今后不能让任何欧洲国家在美洲建立殖民地。他说,欧洲国家的政治体系跟美洲国家截然不同,欧洲政治体系向美洲的扩展会威胁到美国的和平与安全。

VOICE TWO:

The president also said the United States had not interfered with the colonies of any European power in South America and would not do so in the future.

门罗还说,美国从未插手过欧洲国家在美洲殖民地的任何事务,今后也不会这样做。

But, said Monroe, a number of these former colonies had become independent countries. And the United States had recognized their independence. We would see it as an unfriendly act, he said, for any European power to try to oppress or control these new American countries in any way.

但他同时指出,一些欧洲殖民地已经宣布独立,并得到了美国的承认,不管欧洲国家通过何种手段去压制或控制这些美洲国家,都会被美国视为不友好的行动。

At the same time, Monroe said, the United States never had -- and never would -- take part in any war among the European powers. This statement of Monroe's was only part of a presidential message to Congress. But it clearly stated one of the most important of America's foreign policies.

门罗同时承诺,美国永远不会参与任何欧洲国家之间的冲突。这部分声明只是门罗提交给国会的报告中的一部分,但是声明中明确提出了美国一项最重要的外交政策。

VOICE ONE:

The nation had continued to grow during Monroe's term as president. A number of new states were added to the union. Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, and Alabama all became states before eighteen twenty. Louisiana had become the first state to be formed from part of the Louisiana territory that the United States bought from France.

门罗任期内,美国的地域不断扩大,1820年之前,印第安纳、密西西比、伊利诺伊和阿拉巴马等州纷纷加入联邦。美国从法国手中收购的路易斯安那地区,形成的第一个州是路易斯安那州。

The rest of this great area was given the name of the Missouri Territory. By eighteen nineteen, there were enough people in part of the Missouri Territory for that part to become a state. It would be known as the state of Missouri. But Missouri could not become a state without the approval of Congress. And this approval was almost impossible to get.

到1819年的时候,其余地区人口的增长,足以组成第二个州--也就是后来的密苏里州。然而,密苏里州的形成给国会出了一道难题。

VOICE TWO:

The problem was slavery. Slaves were not new in America. Spain had brought them to the West Indies hundreds of years before. In sixteen nineteen, a ship brought twenty African slaves to Jamestown, Virginia. These black men were sold to farmers. Over the years, the use of slaves spread to all the American colonies.

问题出在奴隶制度上。早在几百年前,西班牙就把奴隶引进了西印度群岛。1619年,一艘货船带着20个非洲黑奴,来到维吉尼亚的詹姆斯敦,这些黑奴被卖给当地的农场主。随后,奴隶在北美定居点逐渐普及开来。

There were many more slaves in the agricultural South than in the North. The farms in the North were smaller and needed less man-power. But in the South, farms were much larger, and needed many men. Slaves were the least expensive form of labor.

当时,南方的奴隶比北方多,因为南方以农业为主,农场规模大,需要劳力多,奴隶成本又那么低;

Most of the northern states had passed laws before eighteen hundred freeing slaves. Even the southern states made it illegal to import more slaves from Africa. But those southerners who already owned slaves believed they were necessary, and they refused to free them.

而北方农场相对较小,需要的人手也有限。1800年以前,北方的大多数州都已经通过了解放奴隶的立法,南方各州也都禁止从非洲进口更多的奴隶,但是已经拥有奴隶的南方农场主认为,奴隶的存在是必要的,因此拒绝给他们自由。

A map of the Missouri Territory
A map of the Missouri Territory

VOICE ONE:

Slavery had been legal when France and Spain controlled the Louisiana territory. The United States did nothing to change this when it purchased the area. So slavery was permitted in the Missouri Territory at the time it asked for statehood.

路易斯安那地区受法国和西班牙控制的时候,奴隶制度是合法的。美国收购路易斯安那后,没有通过立法改变现状。因此,这片地区申请成为后来的密苏里州时,奴隶制度依然合法。

A New York congressman, James Tallmadge, offered an amendment to Missouri's request to become a state. Tallmadge proposed that no more slaves be brought into Missouri, and that the children of slaves already there be freed at the age of twenty-five. His proposal started a debate that lasted a year.

当时纽约州的一位众议员詹姆斯.塔尔梅奇建议,在密苏里州的申请案中附加一项条款,保证密苏里不再引进奴隶,现有奴隶的子女25岁后成为自由人。他的提议引起了长达一年的辩论。

Supporters of Tallmadge argued that his proposed amendment was Constitutional. The Constitution, they said, gave Congress the right to admit new states into the union. This also meant, they said, that Congress could refuse to admit new states unless these states met conditions demanded by Congress.

塔尔梅奇的支持者认为,这一附加条件符合宪法,因为根据宪法规定,国会有权吸收新的州加入联邦,这就意味着,国会同样有权拒绝申请,除非这些州满足国会提出的条件。

VOICE TWO:

Supporters of the amendment also said small farmers of the North and East could not compete with the southern farmers and the free labor of slaves. They argued that these northern and eastern farmers had as much right to the land of Missouri as anyone else. The Louisiana territory had been paid for by the taxes of all Americans.

支持者还指出,东部和北部的小农场主无法跟使用奴隶作为免费劳动力的南方大农场主竞争,但实际上,大家对密苏里的土地享受同等的权利,因为路易斯安那地区是用所有纳税人的钱买来的。

Those opposed to slavery also argued that slave-holding states would be given too great a voice in the government if Missouri joined them.

反对奴隶制的人还说,如果密苏里加入联邦,那么允许奴隶制度存在的州就会享有很大的发言权。

Under the Constitution, three of every five slaves were included in the population count to decide membership in the House of Representatives. In the past, each time a slave state was admitted to the union, a free state also had been admitted. This kept a balance in Congress.

根据美国宪法,为决定国会众议员的分配,要进行人口普查,每五个奴隶算三个人。过去,每吸收一个奴隶州进入联邦,就会同时吸收一个非奴隶州,以便保证国会的平衡。

VOICE ONE:

Southerners had an answer for each argument of those supporting the Tallmadge amendment. They agreed that Congress had the Constitutional right to admit or reject a state. But they said Congress did not have the right to make conditions for a territory to become a state.

塔尔梅奇的反对者对上述观点逐一提出反驳。他们承认,国会有权吸收,也有权驳回一个州加入联邦的申请,但是他们认为,国会无权提出条件。

William Pinkney of Maryland argued that states already in the union had joined without any conditions. If Congress, he declared, had the right to set conditions for new states, then these new states would not be equal to the old ones. The United States no longer would be a union of equal states.

马里兰州的威廉.平克尼指出,现存各州加入联邦时,没有任何条件。如果现在说,国会有权提出条件的话,那么对新加入的州和对早先加入的州就并非一视同仁,美国就不是一个平等的联邦。

The debate was violent on both sides. Representative Howell Cobb of Georgia told Tallmadge: "You have started a fire. All the waters of the oceans cannot put it out. Only seas of blood can do so."

辩论双方都很激动。乔治亚州众议员豪厄尔.科布告诉塔尔梅奇说,“你点燃了一场烈火,用尽所有海水也无法扑灭,只能让鲜血来熄灭。”

VOICE TWO:

The House of Representatives passed the Missouri bill with the Tallmadge amendment. It was rejected by the Senate. The people of Missouri would try again for statehood when the new Congress met in eighteen twenty.

美国国会众议院批准了带有塔尔梅奇附加条件的密苏里议案,但是遭到了参议院的否决。密苏里一带的居民只好等1820年新国会会期内再行讨论。

By this time, another free state was ready to enter the union. Maine -- with the permission of Massachusetts -- asked to become a separate state. Once again, a New York congressman tried to put a condition on statehood for Missouri. He offered an amendment that Missouri should agree never to permit any kind of slavery inside its borders.

谁知此时,又多了一个申请加入联邦的州--也就是现在的缅因州。缅因州的居民申请从麻萨诸塞州分离出来,以独立身份加入联邦。新国会开始讨论密苏里州的问题时,纽约的一位众议员再次要求密苏里州接受附加条件,同意在本州境内永远不允许任何形式的奴隶制度。

House Speaker Henry Clay said that as long as any kind of condition was put on Missouri, he could never permit Maine to become a state. Clay was not strong enough to prevent the House from approving statehood for Maine. This bill was sent to the Senate for its approval. The Senate, however, joined the Maine bill with the one for unlimited statehood for Missouri. Senators refused to separate the two.

当时美国国会众议院议长亨利.克莱表示,如果给密苏里加入联邦附加条件,他就绝对不会同意缅因州的申请。但是克莱势单力薄,国会众议院最终批准了缅因州的申请,提交参议院审核。然而,参议院却将无条件吸收密苏里和缅因州的申请案联系在了一起。

VOICE ONE:

Finally, Senator Thomas of Illinois offered a compromise. He said Missouri should be admitted as a state permitting slavery. But he said no other state permitting slavery could be formed from the northern part of the Louisiana territory.

最终,伊利诺伊州参议员托马斯提出了一个妥协方案。托马斯建议,可以让密苏里州保持奴隶制的合法化,但是从今往后,路易斯安那地区不能再出现其他奴隶州。

The compromise was accepted. And Congress approved statehood both for Missouri and Maine. But they would not become states until President Monroe signed the bills. President Monroe had to make a difficult decision. He was a slave-holder. Many of his friends urged him to veto the bills, which would limit slavery in the Louisiana territory. And electors would soon be chosen for the next presidential election. Still, a decision had to be made.

国会接受了托马斯的提议,同意吸收密苏里和缅因,但是还需要门罗总统的签字,才能最后生效,这让门罗左右为难,因为他本人就是奴隶主,很多朋友都要求他否决这项议案,因为这项议案将限制奴隶制在路易斯安那地区的存在。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Harry Monroe. To learn more about America's fifth president, go to www.unsv.com. You can download transcripts of our programs, along with MP3s and podcasts. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

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This is program #51 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:Alumni
the United States went a long way to add 50 stars to her stars and stripes flag. and it also took a long time to give up slavery in whole country.
作者:郑烈波
and electors would soon be chosen for the next presidential election.still,a decision had to be made.
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