官方APP下载:英语全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英语学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
网红英语口语课程——OMG美语,2011-2016完整课程视频打包下载发布!1170课,12.3G
手机微信学英语
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学英语。
英语全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV英语学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
初级VIP会员
全站英语学习资料下载。
¥98元/12个月

#57: Split Divides Jackson, Vice President Calhoun

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版) 
文章正文
同步字幕

Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson became president of the United States in March of eighteen twenty-nine. Thousands of his supporters came to Washington to see him sworn-in. Many were there, however, only to get a government job. They expected President Jackson to dismiss all the government workers who did not support him in the election. Jackson supporters wanted those jobs for themselves.

安德鲁.杰克逊1829年3月宣誓就职,数以千计的支持者赶到华盛顿观礼。其中有不少人是为了谋个一官半职。他们觉得杰克逊会把大选期间没有支持他的人全部赶走,换上自己的亲信。

This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Maurice Joyce continue the story of Andrew Jackson and his presidency.

VOICE ONE:

Most of the jobs were in the Post Office Department, headed by Postmaster General John McLean. McLean told Jackson that if he had to remove postmasters who took part in the election, he would remove those who worked for Jackson as well as those who worked for the re-election of President John Quincy Adams.

政府里的大部分工作都在邮局。当时的邮政总局局长是约翰.麦克莱恩。麦克莱恩告诉杰克逊总统说,如果一定让他开除那些积极参与总统大选的邮递员,那么不论是支持前总统亚当斯的人,还是支持杰克逊的人,他会一视同仁。

Jackson removed McLean as postmaster general. William Barry of Kentucky was named to the position. Barry was willing to give jobs to Jackson's supporters. But he, too, refused to take jobs from people who had done nothing wrong.

杰克逊因此解除了麦克莱恩的职务,让肯塔基州的威廉.巴里接任。巴里愿意给杰克逊的支持者安排工作,但同样不肯解除那些没有任何过失的邮递员的工作。

VOICE TWO:

Many government workers had held their jobs for a long time. Some of them did very little work. Some were just too old. A few were drunk most of the time. And some were even found to have stolen money from the government. These were the people President Jackson wanted to remove. And he learned it was difficult for him to take a job away from someone who really needed it.

当时,很多政府雇员都有很长的工龄,有些人什么也不干,有些人年迈体衰,还有些人大多数时间都是酒气醺天,有些人甚至贪污公款。杰克逊希望把这些人赶走,但是他发现,要解除他们赖以生存的工作,是一件非常棘手的事情。

VOICE ONE:

One old man came to Jackson from Albany, New York. He told Jackson he was postmaster in that city. He said the politicians wanted to take his job. The old man said he had no other way to make a living.

纽约阿伯尼一个上了年纪的老邮递员找到杰克逊,告诉他说,当地的政要想把他扫地出门,但是他没有其他谋生的手段。

When the president did not answer, the old man began to take off his coat. "I am going to show you my wounds," he said. "I got them fighting the British with General George Washington during the war for independence."

老邮递员发现杰克逊不为所动,于是说,“我要让你看看我身上的伤疤,这些伤疤都是独立战争期间追随乔治.华盛顿将军跟英军作战时留下的。”老人一边说一边开始脱去外衣。

The next day, a New York congressman took President Jackson a list of names of government workers who were to be removed. The name of the old man from Albany was on the list. He had not voted for Jackson. "By the eternal!" shouted Jackson. "I will not remove that old man. Do you know he carries a pound of British lead in his body?"

第二天,纽约的一名国会议员给了杰克逊总统一份名单,上边都是即将被解除职务的邮递员的名字。纽约的那个老邮递员的名字就在名单上,他在大选期间没有投票支持杰克逊。杰克逊说,“我不能将这个老人扫地出门。你知道吗,他的身体里有一磅重的英军弹片。”

VOICE TWO:

The job of another old soldier was threatened. The man had a large family and no other job. He had lost a leg on the battlefield during the war for independence. He had not voted for Jackson, either. But that did not seem to matter to the president. "If he lost a leg fighting for his country," Jackson said, "that is vote enough for me. He will keep his job." Jackson's supporters who failed to get the jobs they expected had to return home.

另外一名老兵的工作也受到了威胁。他家里有很多人,都靠他一个人养活。他在独立战争中失去了一条腿。他在大选期间同样没有投票支持杰克逊。但是对于杰克逊来说,这一点并不重要。杰克逊说,“如果他为国家失去了一条腿,对我来说,就是足够的支持。他不会失去工作。”杰克逊的支持者们没有得到工作,只好回家。

John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun

VOICE ONE:

Next, the president had to deal with a split that developed between himself and Vice President John C. Calhoun. The trouble grew out of a problem in the cabinet. Three of the cabinet members were supporters and friends of Calhoun. These were Treasury Secretary Samuel Ingham, Attorney General John Berrien, and Navy Secretary John Branch.

杰克逊接下来面对的是跟副总统卡尔霍恩之间的分歧。他们两人的矛盾要从内阁的组成说起。内阁里有三个人是卡尔霍恩的支持者和好朋友。这三个人是:财政部长塞缪尔.英厄姆、司法部长约翰.贝里恩和海军部长约翰.布兰奇。

A fourth member of the cabinet, Secretary of State Martin van Buren, opposed Calhoun. The fifth member of the cabinet was Jackson's close friend, John Eaton.

与此同时,内阁里跟卡尔霍恩唱对台戏的也大有人在。国务卿马丁.范布伦就反对卡尔霍恩。战争部长约翰.伊顿则是总统杰克逊的密友。

Eaton had been married a few months before Jackson became president. Stories said he and the young woman had lived together before they were married. Vice President Calhoun tried to use the issue to force Eaton from the cabinet. He started a personal campaign against Missus Eaton.

伊顿在杰克逊当选总统前不久结婚。有传闻说,伊顿夫妇两人曾未婚同居。副总统卡尔霍恩想借此把伊顿赶出内阁,亲自出马,对伊顿夫人展开攻击。

Calhoun's wife, and the wives of his three men in the cabinet, refused to have anything to do with her. This made President Jackson angry, because he liked the young woman.

卡尔霍恩夫人和内阁里他的三名支持者的夫人都对伊顿夫人不予理睬,这让杰克逊十分气愤,因为他觉得伊顿夫人很招人喜欢。

VOICE TWO:

The split between Jackson and Calhoun deepened over another issue. Jackson learned that Calhoun -- as a member of former president James Monroe's cabinet -- had called for Jackson's arrest. Calhoun wanted to punish Jackson for his military campaign into Spanish Florida in eighteen eighteen.

与此同时,杰克逊还发现,卡尔霍恩在前总统詹姆斯.门罗内阁里任职的时候,曾主张逮捕杰克逊,因为杰克逊1818年擅自出兵西班牙人控制的佛罗里达。

Another thing that pushed the two men apart was Calhoun's belief that the rights of the states were stronger than the rights of the federal government. His feelings became well known during a debate on a congressional bill.

杰克逊和卡尔霍恩的另外一点分歧源于,卡尔霍恩认为,州的权力高于联邦政府。卡尔霍恩的这种看法在围绕一项国会立法展开的辩论中一览无余。

VOICE ONE:

In eighteen twenty-eight, Congress had passed a bill that -- among other things -- put taxes on imports. The purpose of the tax was to protect American industries.

1828年,美国国会通过了一项立法,对进口物资征收关税,目的是为了保护美国自身工业。

The South opposed the bill mainly because it had almost no industry. It was an agricultural area. Import taxes would only raise the price of products the South imported. The South claimed that the import tax was not constitutional. It said the constitution did not give the federal government the right to make a protective tax.

美国南方各州反对这项立法,因为南方是农业地带,没有工业,对进口商品征收关税只会让南方使用的进口产品涨价。

The state of South Carolina -- Calhoun's state -- refused to pay the import tax. Calhoun wrote a long statement defending South Carolina's action. In the statement, he developed what was called the Doctrine of Nullification. This idea declared that the power of the federal government was not supreme.

南方各州因此提出,设立进口关税违反宪法。宪法没有赋予联邦政府征收保护性关税的权力。卡尔霍恩所在的南卡罗来纳州拒绝支付进口税。卡尔霍恩撰写了一份长篇大论的声明,为南卡罗来纳州的行为进行辩护。他在声明中提出了所谓的“否定原则”,宣布联邦政府不拥有至高权力。

VOICE TWO:

Calhoun noted that the federal government was formed by an agreement among the independent states. That agreement, he said, was the Constitution. In it, he said, the powers of the states and the powers of the federal government were divided. But, he said, supreme power -- sovereignty -- was not divided.

卡尔霍恩指出,联邦政府是独立各州之间达成协议组建的。这份协议就是宪法。卡尔霍恩说,宪法划分了州和联邦政府的权力,但是最高权力--主权,没有划分。

Calhoun argued that supreme power belonged to the states. He said they did not surrender this power when they ratified the Constitution. In any dispute between the states and the federal government, he said, the states should decide what is right. If the federal government passed a law that was not constitutional, then that law was null and void. It had no meaning or power.

卡尔霍恩提出,最高权力属于各州。各州签署宪法的时候并没有把最高权力交给联邦政府,一旦州政府和联邦政府之间发生分歧,各州有权做出自己的判断。如果联邦政府颁布的法律不符合宪法,有关法律就没有法律效力。

VOICE ONE:

Then Calhoun brought up the question of the method to decide if a law was constitutional. He said the power to make such a decision was held by the states. He said the Supreme Court did not have the power, because it was part of the federal government.

什么样的法律才不符合宪法呢?卡尔霍恩提出,决定权在各州手中,而不是联邦最高法院,因为最高法院是联邦政府的一部分。

Calhoun argued that if the federal government passed a law that any state thought was not constitutional, or against its interests, that state could temporarily suspend the law.

卡尔霍恩说,假设联邦政府通过了一项法案,如果有哪个州认为法案违宪,或是不符合自身利益,这个州就可能暂缓法律的执行。

The other states of the union, Calhoun said, would then be asked to decide the question of the law's constitutionality. If two-thirds of the states approved the law, the complaining state would have to accept it, or leave the union. If less than two-thirds of the states approved it, then the law would be rejected. None of the states would have to obey it. It would be nullified -- cancelled.

卡尔霍恩说,然后要由联邦里的其他各州来决定这项法律是否符合宪法。如果三分之二的州认为这项法律合法,提出质疑的州要么接受这项法律的合法性,要么退出联邦。如果批准这项法律的州不到所有州的三分之二,这项法律就宣布无效作废,任何州都不用执行。

Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster

VOICE TWO:

The idea of nullification was debated in the Senate by Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Robert Hayne of South Carolina. Hayne spoke first. He stated that there was no greater evil than giving more power to the federal government. The major point of his speech could be put into a few words: liberty first, union afterwards.

参议院就此展开辩论。南卡罗来纳州的罗伯特.海恩说,任何邪恶都无法跟给予联邦政府过多的权力相提并论。他的观点概括成两句话就是自由第一,联邦第二。

Webster spoke next. He declared that the Constitution was not the creature of the state governments. It was more than an agreement among states. It was the law of the land. Supreme power was divided, Webster said, between the states and the union. The federal government had received from the people the same right to govern as the states.

麻萨诸塞州的参议员丹尼尔.韦伯斯特提出反驳。他表示,宪法并非州政府的产物,远不只是各州之间的一纸协议。宪法是美国的根本大法。韦伯斯特还说,最高法律在州和联邦之间进行了划分,联邦政府跟州政府一样得到了人们赋予的统治的权力。

VOICE ONE:

Webster declared that the states had no right to reject an act of the federal government and no legal right to leave the union. If a dispute should develop between a state and the federal government, he said, the dispute should be settled by the Supreme Court of the United States.

韦伯斯特宣布,各州无权拒绝联邦政府的行为,在法律上也无权宣布退出联邦。如果州政府和联邦政府之间发生分歧,就应该由联邦最高法院做出裁决。

Webster said Hayne had spoken foolishly when he used the words: liberty first, union afterwards. They could not be separated, Webster said. It was liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable.

韦伯斯特说,海恩嘴里说的什么自由第一,联邦第二,完全是一派胡言,二者不可分割,自由和联邦本来就是一个共同体,不可分割,现在是如此,将来也是一样。

VOICE TWO:

No one really knew how President Jackson felt about the question of nullification. He had said nothing during the debate. Did he support Calhoun's idea. Or did he agree with Webster. That will be our story next week.

没有人知道杰克逊总统对这个问题的看法。他在辩论中没有发表任何意见。那么,杰克逊到底是赞成海恩的主张,还是支持韦伯斯特的看法呢?欢迎大家下周同一时间继续收听。

(THEME)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Frank Oliver and Maurice Joyce. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

____________

This is program # 57 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
constitution 宪法, constitutional 宪法的, constitutionaliy 合宪性, 符合宪法。。。obviously, words are interrelated, so are the things in the world.
版权所有©2003-2018 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
网站备案:苏ICP备05000269号-1中国工业和信息化部网站备案查询
广播台