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#58: For President Jackson, a Question of States' Rights

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Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

In our last few programs, we described the presidential election campaign of eighteen-twenty-eight. It split the old Republican Party of Thomas Jefferson into two hostile groups: the National Republicans of John Quincy Adams and the Democrats of Andrew Jackson. The election of Jackson deepened the split. It became more serious as a new dispute arose over import taxes.

Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Stewart Spencer continue the story of Andrew Jackson's presidency.

VOICE ONE:

Congress passed a bill in eighteen twenty-eight that put high taxes on a number of imported products. The purpose of the import tax was to protect American industries from foreign competition. The South opposed the tax, because it had no industry to protect. Its chief product was cotton, which was exported to Europe.

美国国会1828年通过一项立法,对一系列进口商品大幅度征收关税。这项立法的目的是为了保护美国工业免受外来竞争的压迫。美国南方各州反对这项立法,因为南方是农业区,没有工业需要保护,南方主要产品是向欧洲出口的棉花。

The American import taxes forced European nations to put taxes on American cotton. This meant a drop in the sale of cotton and less money for the planters of the South. It also meant higher prices in the American market for manufactured goods.

美国如果对进口商品征收关税,欧洲就会对美国出口的棉花征收对等关税,这样一来,不仅南方的棉花销量会降低,使南方农场主的收入减少,同时也会让美国市场上工业品的价格提高。

South Carolina refused to pay the import tax. It said the tax was not constitutional, that the constitution did not give the federal government the power to order a protective tax.

南卡罗来纳州拒付进口税,并表示,进口税不符合宪法,宪法没有给予联邦政府征收保护性关税的权力。

John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun

VOICE TWO:

At one time, the vice president of the United States -- John C. Calhoun of South Carolina -- had believed in a strong central government. But he had become a strong supporter of states' rights.

美国当时的副总统卡尔霍恩就来自南卡罗来纳州,他一度曾主张建立一个强大的联邦政府,但后来变成了州政府权力的坚定支持者。

Calhoun wrote a long statement against the import tax for the South Carolina legislature. In it, he developed the idea of nullification -- cancelling federal powers. He said the states had created the federal government and, therefore, the states had the greater power. He argued that the states could reject, or nullify, any act of the central government which was not constitutional. And, Calhoun said, the states should be the judge of whether an act was constitutional or not.

卡尔霍恩为南卡罗来纳州议会写了一份长篇大论的声明。在声明中,卡尔霍恩提出了所谓的“否定原则”。他说,联邦政府是由各州建立的,因此,各州的权力高于联邦。卡尔霍恩指出,各州可以拒绝接受联邦政府任何不符合宪法的政令,联邦政府的行为是否合法,由州政府自行判断。

Calhoun's idea was debated in the Senate by Robert Hayne of South Carolina and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts. Hayne supported nullification, and Webster opposed it. Webster said Hayne was wrong in using the words "liberty first, and union afterwards." He said they could not be separated. Said Webster: "Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable."

参议院就此展开辩论。南卡罗来纳州的罗伯特.海恩支持“否定原则”;麻萨诸塞州的韦伯斯特极力反对。两人唇枪舌战,展开了一场论战。韦伯斯特说,海恩嘴里说的什么自由第一,联邦第二,完全是一派胡言,二者不可分割,自由和联邦本来就是一个共同体,不可分割,现在是如此,将来也是一样。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

No one really knew how President Andrew Jackson felt about nullification. He made no public statement during the debate. Leaders in South Carolina developed a plan to get the president's support. They decided to hold a big dinner honoring the memory of Thomas Jefferson. Jackson agreed to be at the dinner.

没有人知道杰克逊总统对这个问题的态度。他在辩论期间没有发表任何公开声明。南卡罗来纳州为了得到杰克逊的支持,决定设宴纪念美国前总统托马斯.杰斐逊。杰克逊总统同意出席。

The speeches were carefully planned. They began by praising the democratic ideas of Jefferson. Then speakers discussed Virginia's opposition to the alien and sedition laws passed by the federal government in seventeen-ninety-eight.

晚宴上的讲话都是经过精心设计的。他们一上来,先是称赞杰斐逊总统的民主理念,然后又提到了维吉尼亚州反对联邦政府1798年通过的《外国人法》和《惩治叛乱法》的那段历史。

Next they discussed South Carolina's opposition to the import tax. Finally, the speeches were finished. It was time for toasts. President Jackson made the first one. He stood up, raised his glass, and looked straight at John C. Calhoun. He waited for the cheering to stop. "Our union," he said, "it must be preserved."

接下来,主办者把话题引到南卡罗来纳州对进口关税的反对。讲话结束后,杰克逊总统率先祝酒。杰克逊站起身来,举起酒杯。他双眼直视副总统卡尔霍恩,等欢呼声平静下来后说,“我们的联邦,一定要保持下去。”

VOICE TWO:

Calhoun rose with the others to drink the toast. He had not expected Jackson's opposition to nullification. His hand shook, and he spilled some of the wine from his glass.

卡尔霍恩站起身来跟大家一起干杯。他完全没有想到,杰克逊会反对他的“否定原则”,他的手哆嗦了一下,酒洒了出来。

Calhoun was called on to make the next toast. The vice president rose slowly. "The union," he said, "next to our liberty, most dear." He waited a moment, then, continued. "May we all remember that it can only be preserved by respecting the rights of the states and by giving equally the benefits and burdens of the union."

接下来轮到卡尔霍恩祝酒了。他缓缓地站起身来说:“我们的联邦,十分宝贵,仅次于我们的自由。”稍等片刻后,卡尔霍恩继续说:“我们大家一定要记住,只有尊重各州的权力,让各州平等享受联邦的福利和负担,联邦才能得以保持。”

President Jackson left a few minutes later. Most of those at dinner left with him.

杰克逊几分钟后离席,大部分人紧随其后。

John Eaton
John Eaton

VOICE ONE:

The nation now knew how the president felt. And the people were with him -- opposed to nullification. But the idea was not dead among the extremists of South Carolina. They were to start more trouble two years later.

不过,“否定原则”在南卡罗来纳州极端主义者中间依然很有市场,两年后死灰复燃。

Calhoun's nullification doctrine was not the only thing that divided Jackson and the vice president. Calhoun had led a campaign against the wife of Jackson's friend and secretary of war, John Eaton.

否定原则并不是杰克逊和卡尔霍恩的唯一分歧。卡尔霍恩还对杰克逊的好友、战争部长约翰.伊顿的夫人发起攻击。

Three members of Jackson's cabinet supported Calhoun. Mister Calhoun and the three cabinet wives would have nothing to do with Mister Eaton. Jackson saw this as a political trick to try to force Eaton from the cabinet, and make Jackson look foolish at the same time.

杰克逊内阁里的三个成员支持卡尔霍恩。这四个人的夫人都拒绝和伊顿夫人来往。杰克逊认为,这是他们的政治把戏,目的是要强迫伊顿退出内阁,让杰克逊出丑。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The hostility between Jackson and his vice president was sharpened by a letter that was written by a member of President Monroe's cabinet. It told how Calhoun wanted Jackson arrested in eighteen-eighteen.

杰克逊和卡尔霍恩之间的敌对情绪日益加深。与此同时,前总统门罗任期内跟卡尔霍恩同事过的内阁成员威廉.克劳福德写信告诉杰克逊,卡尔霍恩1818年的时候曾经主张逮捕杰克逊。

The letter writer, William Crawford, was in the cabinet with Calhoun. Jackson had led a military campaign into Spanish Florida and had hanged two British citizens. Calhoun proposed during a cabinet meeting that Jackson be punished. Jackson did not learn of this until eighteen-twenty-nine. Jackson wanted no further communications with Calhoun.

当时,杰克逊未经门罗总统的批准,擅自率兵进攻西班牙控制下的佛罗里达一带,还吊死了两个英国人。卡尔霍恩在一次内阁会议上建议惩罚杰克逊。杰克逊直到1829年才得知这一消息,两人的关系因此陷入冷战。

Several attempts were made to soften relations between Calhoun and Jackson. One of them seemed to succeed. Jackson told Secretary of State Martin van Buren that the dispute had been settled. He said the unfriendly letters that he and Calhoun sent each other would be destroyed. And he said he would invite the vice president to have dinner with him at the White House.

卡尔霍恩和杰克逊也曾试图改善关系,而且有一次好像真是做到了。杰克逊告诉国务卿范布伦说,他跟卡尔霍恩已经冰释前嫌,两人会销毁彼此间那些不友好的书信,他还准备邀请卡尔霍恩到白宫来,跟他共进晚餐。

VOICE ONE:

With the dispute ended, Calhoun thought he saw a way to destroy his rival for the presidency -- Secretary of State Martin van Buren. He decided not to destroy the letters he and Jackson sent to each other. Instead, he had a pamphlet written, using the letters. The pamphlet also contained the statement of several persons denying the Crawford charges. And, it accused Mister van Buren of using Crawford to try to split Jackson and Calhoun.

卡尔霍恩觉得,跟杰克逊关系改善后,就可以着手消灭自己将来竞选总统的对手国务卿范布伦了。他决定保留跟杰克逊的书信,不把它们销毁掉。他把这些信件作为资料,写成了一本小册子,里面引用了一些人的声明,否认克劳福德的指控,并指责国务卿范布伦利用克劳福德,在杰克逊跟卡尔霍恩之间制造矛盾。

One of Calhoun's men took a copy of the pamphlet to Secretary Eaton and asked him to show it to President Jackson. He told Eaton that the pamphlet would not be published without Jackson's approval.

卡尔霍恩的部下拿着这本小册子,交给战争部长伊顿,请他转交杰克逊总统,并告诉伊顿说,没有杰克逊的批准,他们是不会公开发行这本小册子的。

Eaton did not show the pamphlet to Jackson and said nothing to Calhoun's men. Calhoun understood this silence to mean that Jackson did not object to the pamphlet. So he had it published and given to the public.

谁知道,伊顿并没有把小册子转交给杰克逊,也没有给卡尔霍恩的部下任何答复。卡尔霍恩以为,沉默就意味着杰克逊的默许,于是就大批印刷,并公开发行。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Jackson exploded when he read it. Not only had Calhoun failed to destroy the letters, he had published them. Jackson's newspaper, the Washington Globe, accused Calhoun of throwing a firebomb into the party.

杰克逊得知后火冒三丈。卡尔霍恩不仅没有销毁两人间的书信往来,而且还把它们公诸于众。支持杰克逊的报纸《华盛顿环球报》指责卡尔霍恩向民主党内投掷了一枚燃烧弹。

Jackson declared that Calhoun and his supporters had cut their own throats. Only later did Calhoun discover what had gone wrong. Eaton had not shown the pamphlet to Jackson. He had not even spoken to the president about it. This was Eaton's way of punishing those who treated his wife so badly.

杰克逊宣布,卡尔霍恩和他的支持者们是自掘坟墓。卡尔霍恩一头雾水,直到后来才发现,伊顿压根儿就没有把宣传小册子交给杰克逊看,甚至没有提及此事。伊顿这样做是为了替夫人出气。

VOICE ONE:

Jackson continued to defend Margaret Eaton's honor. He even held a cabinet meeting on the subject. All the secretaries but John Eaton were there.

与此同时,杰克逊也继续捍卫伊顿夫人的荣誉。他甚至召开内阁会议讨论此事。除伊顿本人以外,所有内阁成员都参加了这次会议。

Jackson told them that he did not want to interfere in their private lives. But, he said it seemed that their families were trying to get others to have nothing to do with Mister Eaton. "I will not part with John Eaton," Jackson said. "And those of my cabinet who cannot harmonize with him had better withdraw. I must and I will have harmony." Jackson said any insult to Eaton would be an insult to himself. Either work with Eaton or resign. There were no resignations.

杰克逊告诉他们说,他不想干涉内阁成员的私生活,但是他发现,他们几位的家庭好像串通一起,孤立伊顿。杰克逊说:“我是不会跟约翰.伊顿分开的。在我内阁里工作的,如果不能跟伊顿和睦相处,最好尽快辞职。我必须,也一定会实现内阁的和睦。”杰克逊说,对伊顿的侮辱,就是对他的侮辱,要么跟伊顿合作,要么索性辞职。结果没有人辞职。

VOICE TWO:

But the problem got no better. Many people just would not accept Margaret Eaton as their social equal. Mister van Buren saw that the problem was hurting Jackson deeply. But he knew better than to propose to Jackson that he ask for Secretary Eaton's resignation. He already had heard Jackson say that he would resign as president before he would desert his friend Eaton.

但是情况并未出现好转。很多人无论如何也无法平等地接受伊顿夫人。范布伦意识到,这个问题已经对杰克逊造成了沉重的伤害,但是他清楚地知道,不能建议杰克逊让伊顿辞职,因为杰克逊已经明确表示,他宁可辞去总统的职务,也不会背信弃义。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Stewart Spencer. Next week, we discuss Martin van Buren's plan to solve the dispute between Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com.

Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

____________

This is program # 58 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
the contradiction between Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun,vice president, is just like water and fire.
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