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#59: Bank of the United States Worries Jackson

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Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Andrew Jackson served as president of the United States from eighteen twenty-nine to eighteen thirty-seven. His first term seemed to be mostly a political battle with Vice President John C. Calhoun.

安德鲁.杰克逊在1829年到1837年期间,连任了两届美国总统。他的第一个任期主要围绕着跟副总统卡尔霍恩的政治斗争展开。

Calhoun wanted to be the next president. Jackson believed his secretary of state, Martin Van Buren, would be a better president. And Van Buren wanted the job. He won the president's support partly because of his help in settling a serious political dispute.

卡尔霍恩想继承杰克逊的总统大位,但是杰克逊认为,国务卿马丁.范布伦才是更理想的总统人选。范布伦本人也想当总统。他帮助杰克逊妥善处理了一桩严重的政治纠纷,并因而赢得了杰克逊的支持。

This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant continue the story of Andrew Jackson and his presidency.

Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson

VOICE ONE:

President Jackson's cabinet was in great disorder. Vice President Calhoun was trying to force out Secretary of War John Eaton. Eaton would not resign, and the president would not dismiss him.

杰克逊的第一届内阁里矛盾重重。副总统卡尔霍恩想把战争部长约翰.伊顿赶走,但是伊顿不肯辞职,杰克逊总统也不愿意解除他的职务。

Van Buren designed a plan to gain Eaton's resignation. One morning, as Jackson discussed his cabinet problems, Van Buren said: "There is only one thing, general, that will bring you peace -- my resignation."

范布伦因此设计了一个计谋。一天早晨,杰克逊谈到内阁矛盾的时候,范布伦说,“只有一件事情能给你带来平静,那就是我的辞职。”

"Never," said Jackson.

杰克逊回答说,“绝对不行。”

Van Buren explained how his resignation would solve a number of Jackson's political problems. Jackson did not want to let Van Buren go. But the next day, he told Van Buren that he would never stop any man who wished to leave.

范布伦解释说,如果他辞职,杰克逊面对的一系列政治难题就会迎刃而解。杰克逊不想失去范布伦,但是第二天,他还是告诉范布伦说,他不会阻止任何去意已定的人。

VOICE TWO:

The president wanted to discuss the resignation with his other advisers. Van Buren agreed. He also said it might be best if Secretary of War Eaton were at the meeting.

杰克逊想就范布伦辞职一事跟其他人商量。范布伦表示同意,他还特别强调,最好战争部长伊顿也能在场。

The advisers accepted Van Buren's resignation. Then they went to Van Buren's house for dinner. On the way, Eaton said: "Gentlemen, this is all wrong. I am the one who should resign!" Van Buren said Eaton must be sure of such a move. Eaton was sure.

大家经过讨论,同意接受范布伦的辞职,随后一起去范布伦家吃饭。在前往范布伦家的途中,伊顿忽然说,“绅士们,这一切都是错的。应该辞职的是我。”范布伦告诉伊顿,一定要考虑清楚。伊顿回答说,我已经想明白了。

VOICE ONE:

President Jackson accepted Eaton's decision as he had accepted Van Buren's. But he was unwilling to give up completely the services of his two friends. He named Van Buren to be minister to Britain. And he told Eaton that he would help him get elected again to the Senate.

杰克逊同样接受了伊顿的辞呈,但是他不愿意失去两个好朋友的扶持,因此任命范布伦为美国驻英大使,并且告诉伊顿说,他会帮助他重新选进参议院。

Jackson then dismissed the remaining members of his cabinet. He was free to organize a new cabinet that would be loyal to him and not to Vice President Calhoun.

杰克逊随即解散内阁,重新组建了一个忠实于自己,而不是副总统卡尔霍恩的新内阁。

Even with a new cabinet, Jackson still faced the problem of nullification. South Carolina politicians, led by Calhoun, continued to claim that states had the right to reject -- nullify -- a federal law which they believed was bad.

尽管如此,杰克逊还是要处理“否定原则”的难题。以副总统卡尔霍恩为首的南卡罗来纳州的政客们坚持说,各州有权否定联邦法律。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Jackson asked a congressman from South Carolina to give a message to the nullifiers in his state. "Tell them," Jackson said, "that they can talk and write resolutions and print threats to their hearts' content. But if one drop of blood is shed there in opposition to the laws of the United States, I will hang the first man I can get my hands on to the first tree I can find."

杰克逊让来自南卡罗来纳州的一位国会议员转告他们那里的“否定主义者”。杰克逊说,“告诉他们,他们可以畅所欲言,随便发表决议、提出威胁,但是如果他们那里因为反对联邦法律而流一滴血,我就要在第一棵我能看到的树上吊死我能抓到的第一个人。”

Someone questioned if Jackson would go so far as to hang someone. A man answered: "When Jackson begins to talk about hanging, they can begin to look for the ropes."

难道杰克逊真会为此把人吊死吗?有人回答说,“如果杰克逊已经说到了绞刑,那就可以开始寻找绳子了。”

VOICE ONE:

The nullifiers held a majority of seats in South Carolina's legislature at that time. They called a special convention. Within five days, convention delegates approved a declaration of nullification.

当时,支持“否定原则”的人在南卡罗来纳州议会里占多数。他们召集了一次特别大会,议会代表在五天内就通过了一项“否定宣言”。

They declared that the federal import tax laws of eighteen twenty-eight and eighteen thirty-two were unconstitutional, and therefore, cancelled. They said citizens of South Carolina need not pay the tax. The nullifiers also declared that if the federal government tried to use force against South Carolina, then the state would withdraw from the union and form its own independent government.

他们宣称,1828年和1832年有关进口税的联邦法律违宪,因此被取消。他们宣布,南卡罗来纳州的居民不需要缴纳进口税,如果联邦政府试图动用武力强制执行的话,南卡罗来纳州就会退出联邦,成立自己的独立政府。

VOICE TWO:

President Jackson answered with a declaration of his own. Jackson said America's constitution formed a government, not just an association of sovereign states. South Carolina had no right to cancel a federal law or to withdraw from the union. Disunion by force was treason. Jackson said: "The laws of the United States must be enforced. This is my duty under the Constitution. I have no other choice."

杰克逊总统毫不示弱。他宣布,美国政府是根据宪法组建的,这个政府不是享有主权的各州的结盟。因此,南卡罗来纳州无权废除联邦法律,也无权退出联邦,武力退出属于叛国行为。杰克逊说,“美国的法律必需执行,这是宪法赋予我的职责,我别无选择。”

VOICE ONE:

Jackson did more. He asked Congress to give him the power to use the Army and Navy to enforce the laws of the land. Congress did so. Jackson sent eight warships to the port of Charleston, South Carolina, and soldiers to federal military bases in the state.

杰克逊要求国会授予他调遣陆军和海军执行联邦法律的权力,国会批准了他的请求。杰克逊随即派遣八艘战舰前往南卡罗来纳州的查尔斯顿,并派兵进驻南卡罗来纳州里的联邦军事基地。

While preparing to use force, Jackson offered hope for a peaceful settlement. In his yearly message to Congress, he spoke of reducing the federal import tax which hurt the sale of southern cotton overseas. He said the import tax could be reduced, because the national debt would soon be paid.

武力准备的同时,杰克逊也给了南方和平解决纠纷的希望。他在向国会发表的年度讲话中提出,进口税会伤害南方棉花的出口,因此政府可能会降低进口税,而且国债不久就要付清了。

VOICE TWO:

Congress passed a compromise bill to end the import tax by eighteen forty-two. South Carolina's congressmen accepted the compromise. And the state's legislature called another convention. This time, the delegates voted to end the nullification act they had approved earlier.

国会通过了一项妥协法案,定于1842年终止进口税。南卡罗来纳州的国会议员们接受了这项妥协,并投票决定取消他们早先通过的否定法案。

They did not, however, give up their belief in the idea of nullification. The idea continued to be a threat to the American union until the issue was settled in the Civil War which began in eighteen sixty-one.

然而,他们并没有彻底放弃“否定原则”的理念。这种看法继续对美国的国家团结构成威胁,这种情况一直持续到1861年开始的美国南北战争。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

While President Jackson battled the nullifiers, another struggle began. This time, it was Jackson against the Bank of the United States. Congress provided money to establish the Bank of the United States in eighteen sixteen. It gave the bank a charter to do business for twenty years. The bank was permitted to use the government's money to make loans. For this, the bank paid the government one and one-half million dollars a year. The bank was run by private citizens.

杰克逊总统跟南方的“否定主义者”做斗争的同时,另外一场斗争也拉开了战幕。杰克逊这次的对手是美国银行。美国国会1816年拨款成立了美国银行,特许经营二十年。美国银行由私人经营,但是有权动用国库的钱发行贷款,为此,美国银行每年向政府缴纳150万美元。

VOICE TWO:

The Bank of the United States was strong, because of the great amount of government money invested in it. The bank's paper notes were almost as good as gold. They came close to being a national money system.

联邦政府的投资,让美国银行实力雄厚。美国银行发行的票据象金子一样值钱。美国银行的业务规模已经接近了一个完整的国家货币体系。

The bank opened offices in many parts of the country. As it grew, it became more powerful. By making it easy or difficult for businesses to borrow money, the bank could control the economy of almost any part of the United States.

美国银行在各地开办分行。由于掌握了贷款与否的大权,美国银行可以控制几乎所有地区的经济。

VOICE ONE:

Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle

During Jackson's presidency, the Bank of the United States was headed by Nicholas Biddle. Biddle was an extremely intelligent man. He had completed studies at the University of Pennsylvania when he was only thirteen years old. When he was eighteen, he was sent to Paris as secretary to the American minister.

杰克逊任职期间,美国银行行长是尼克拉斯.比德尔。比德尔是个奇才,13岁从宾夕法尼亚大学毕业,18岁就被任命美国驻巴黎大使的秘书。

Biddle worked on financial details of the purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. After America's war against Britain in eighteen twelve, Biddle helped establish the Bank of the United States. He became its president when he was only thirty-seven years old.

VOICE TWO:

Biddle clearly understood his power as president of the Bank of the United States. In his mind, the government had no right to interfere in any way with the bank's business. President Jackson did not agree. Nor was he very friendly toward the bank. Not many westerners were. They did not trust the bank's paper money. They wanted to deal in gold and silver.

比德尔清楚地知道自己作为美国银行行长的权力。在他看来,联邦政府无权干涉银行业务。但是杰克逊总统不这么看,他对美国银行的态度也很不友好。美国西部大多数人都不信任美国银行,不信任美国银行的纸票据。他们还是希望用金币和银币进行交易。

Jackson criticized the bank in each of his yearly messages to Congress. He said the Bank of the United States was dangerous to the liberty of the people. He said the bank could build up or pull down political parties through loans to politicians. Jackson opposed giving the bank a new charter. He proposed that a new bank be formed as part of the Treasury Department.

杰克逊每年向国会发表讲话都会批评美国银行。他说,美国银行对人们的自由构成威胁。他还说,美国银行可以通过向政客的贷款,建立或摧毁政党。杰克逊反对延长美国银行的特许经营权,并建议在财政部下面成立一家新银行。

A political drawing from 1832 about the Bank of the United States. President Jackson is shown as a cat defending the United States from rats that steal.
A political drawing from 1832 about the Bank of the United States. President Jackson is shown as a cat defending the United States from rats that steal.

VOICE ONE:

The president urged Congress to consider the future of the bank long before the bank's charter was to end. Then, if the charter was rejected, the bank could close its business slowly over several years. This would prevent serious economic problems for the country.

杰克逊总统敦促国会在美国银行特许经营权结束前提早考虑这家银行的前途。如果特许经营权宣告结束,美国银行就要在几年的时间内按部就班地停止各项业务,以免引发严重的经济问题。

Many of President Jackson's advisers believed he should say nothing about the bank until after the presidential election of eighteen thirty-two. They feared he might lose the votes of those who supported the bank. Jackson accepted their advice. He agreed not to act on the issue, if bank president Biddle would not request renewal of the charter before the election.

杰克逊的很多军师都认为,在1832年总统大选前,杰克逊最好不要在这个问题上多说话。他们担心,杰克逊会失去那些支持美国银行的人的选票。杰克逊接受了他们的建议,同意不在这个问题上采取行动,但前提条件是美国银行行长比德尔不在大选前提出延长特许经营权的要求。

Biddle agreed. Then he changed his mind. He asked Congress for a new charter in January eighteen thirty-two. The request became a hot political issue in the presidential campaign.

比德尔起初表示同意,但后来又改变了主意。他于1832年1月向国会提出了新特许证书的申请,这一要求成为大选期间的一个热点政治议题。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. Your narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

____________

This is program # 59 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
wonder child ? if there has been, this Nicholas Biddle was. he finished a university at age of 13.
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