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#61: Economic Crisis Results as Jackson Aims to Shut Bank

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

Andrew Jackson was elected president in eighteen twenty-eight. He was popular with voters. But he was not sure he wanted to run for re-election in eighteen thirty-two. He was getting old. He suffered from health problems. Yet he wanted to give voters a chance to show their approval of his programs.

安德鲁.杰克逊1828年当选总统。但是,是否要参选连任?杰克逊举棋不定。一方面,他年事已高,身体不好;但是另一方面,杰克逊又很想知道,自己的政纲是否得到了选民的肯定。

So Jackson made a decision. He would run again. If he won, however, he would resign after the first or second year. He would leave the job to his vice president.

杰克逊最后决定参加竞选,如果当选连任,干上一、两年,然后辞职,让贤给副总统。

Now, this week in our series, Rich Kleinfeldt and Sarah Long continue the story of Andrew Jackson and his presidency.

Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson

VOICE ONE:

President Jackson spoke of this plan to the man he wanted as his vice president, Martin Van Buren. He made the offer in eighteen thirty, when Van Buren was still his secretary of state. Van Buren thanked Jackson for the offer. However, he rejected it. Van Buren said it would be politically dangerous. He did not want anyone to say that he had been brought into the presidency in secret.

杰克逊总统把他的计划告诉了他看中的副总统人选马丁.范布伦。他1830年提出这个主意的时候,范布伦还是他的国务卿。范布伦感谢杰克逊的赏识,但是婉然拒绝了杰克逊的提议。他认为,这样做无异于在政治上走钢丝,他不想被别人说,自己是通过私下交易当上总统的。

Jackson did not give up his idea. For more than a year, he continued to urge Van Buren to accept the offer. Van Buren continued to say no. He agreed to be Jackson's vice presidential candidate in eighteen thirty-two. But he said he did not want to become president without being elected by the people.

杰克逊并没有立即放弃。他在随后一年多的时间里,不断劝说范布伦,但是范布伦也很坚定。他同意出任副总统候选人,参加1832年大选,但是不想成为一个没有经过人民选举的总统。

VOICE TWO:

As the election got closer, Jackson's health began to improve. He began to think about serving a second full term. One thing that helped was an operation to remove a bullet from his arm.

随着总统大选的临近,杰克逊的健康状况也开始出现好转,其中很重要的一个原因是,医生通过手术取出了杰克逊胳膊里的一颗子弹。杰克逊因此开始认真考虑做完第二个任期。

He had received the wound during a gun fight with another man about twenty years earlier. It troubled him so badly that sometimes he could not use the arm. Doctors were afraid to remove the bullet. They thought it might cause a terrible shock to his heart.

杰克逊在二十年前的一次决斗中受伤,子弹留在了胳膊里。这颗子弹让他十分苦恼,受伤的那只胳膊有时甚至不能动弹。医生们不敢轻易取出子弹,生怕杰克逊的心脏无法承受。

VOICE ONE:

Early in the election year, a doctor said he believed the bullet could be removed easily. He told the president that it was poisoning his whole body. Jackson asked the doctor to cut out the bullet at once. The operation was over in a few minutes. Jackson's health quickly became much better.

大选年年初,一位医生告诉杰克逊说,他觉得子弹很容易取出,继续留在体内会让整个身体受到毒害。杰克逊决定立即手术。手术只用了几分钟,子弹取出后,杰克逊的健康迅速改善。

A funny little story was told about that bullet. Someone reportedly said Jackson should give it to the family of the man who shot him. One family member rejected the offer. He said Jackson had possessed the bullet for twenty years. So, he said, under the law, Jackson had clear ownership to it. "Only nineteen years," someone noted. "Oh," the man said, "that is all right. Since Jackson took good care of it, I will forget the extra year."

关于这颗子弹还有一个很好笑的故事。有人提出,杰克逊应该把子弹还给跟他决斗的那个人的家人。结果那家人表示拒绝,还说,杰克逊保留这颗子弹已经20年了,按照法律,杰克逊才是子弹的主人。有人提出,不到二十年,而是十九年。那家人回答说,“没有关系,杰克逊把子弹保管得这么好,差一年就差一年吧。”

(MUSIC)

Henry Clay
Henry Clay

VOICE TWO:

The presidential election campaign of eighteen thirty-two was bitter. President Jackson was, once again, the candidate of the Democratic Party. Henry Clay was the candidate of the National Republican Party.

1832年的总统大选异常激烈。杰克逊是民主党候选人,亨利.克莱是共和党候选人。

Clay had the support of Nicholas Biddle, who was head of the Bank of the United States. He also had the support of about two-thirds of the nation's newspapers. This was because most of them owed money to the bank. Most wealthy people supported Clay, too.

克莱得到了美国银行行长尼克拉斯.比德尔的支持。他还有全国三分之二报纸的支持,因为这些报纸都欠了美国银行的钱。大多数有钱人也站在克莱一边。

Farmers and laborers supported Jackson. They showed their support by marching in parades and holding big, noisy public meetings.

与此同时,农民和劳工阶层是杰克逊的坚强后盾。他们组织游行集会,表达对杰克逊的支持。

VOICE ONE:

On election day, the people showed that Jackson was still their president. There was a much bigger difference in popular votes between Jackson and Clay than between Jackson and John Quincy Adams four years earlier. As the votes were counted, one of Clay's supporters said: "The news blows over us like a great cold storm."

选举日当天,选民证明,杰克逊仍是他们拥护的总统。杰克逊跟克莱之间票数的差距,远远超过了四年前杰克逊跟约翰.昆西.亚当斯之间的差距。选票清点过程中,克莱的一个支持者说,“消息的传来,就好像是一场寒冷的风暴。”

Jackson received about six hundred eighty-eight thousand popular votes. Clay received about four hundred seventy-three thousand votes. In the electoral college, Jackson got more than four times the number of votes than Clay got. Jackson's vice president would be Martin Van Buren.

最后,杰克逊得到了大约68万八千张选票。克莱得到了大约47万三千张选票。如果按照选举人票计算的话,杰克逊的票数是克莱的四倍多。马丁.范布伦是杰克逊的副总统竞选搭档。

VOICE TWO:

Andrew Jackson saw his re-election as proof that the American people approved of his policies. This included his policy to close the Bank of the United States when its charter ended in eighteen thirty-six.

杰克逊从自己的竞选连任中看出,自己的政策深得人心,其中也包括他关于美国银行特许经营权在1836年结束后不再延长的决定。

During his second term, Jackson decided on a plan to reduce the bank's economic power. He would stop putting federal money into the bank. Instead, he would put it into state banks. This would greatly reduce the amount of money the Bank of the United States could use.

杰克逊决定不再把联邦资金放进美国银行,而是转到各州的银行去。这样一来,美国银行可以动用的资金就大大减少了。

VOICE ONE:

The plan was not as easy as it seemed. The charter for the bank said federal money had to be kept there unless the secretary of the treasury ordered it put someplace else. President Jackson's treasury secretary was friendly to the bank. He would not give the order.

这项计划听起来容易,但是执行起来,可就没有那么简单了。美国银行的宪章规定,联邦资金应该放进美国银行,除非财政部长另行规定。杰克逊手下的财政部长跟美国银行关系非常好,因此不肯按照杰克逊的指令行事。

Jackson would have to dismiss the man and appoint someone who supported his plan. But the treasury secretary was a powerful politician. Jackson could not push him out of the job. He had to find another way. So he decided to reorganize his whole cabinet.

杰克逊要达到自己的目的,只能先解除现任财政部长的职务。然而,这位财政部长位高权重,杰克逊搬不倒他。杰克逊只好另觅蹊径,最后决定重组内阁。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Jackson named his secretary of state to be minister to France. He named his treasury secretary to be secretary of state. Then he brought in someone new as secretary of the treasury. That turned out to be a mistake.

杰克逊任命当时的国务卿出任驻法大使,任命财政部长继任国务卿,然后任命了一位新财政部长,结果证明,这是一大错误。

The new treasury secretary refused to put federal money anywhere but in the Bank of the United States. He also refused to resign when Jackson asked him to resign. So Jackson dismissed him and named yet another new treasury secretary.

新财长拒绝把联邦资金放在美国银行以外的任何地方,也不肯辞职。杰克逊没有办法,只好又解除了他的职务,再换另外一个人担任财政部长。

Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle

VOICE ONE:

This man immediately ordered that after October first, eighteen thirty-three, all federal money was to be put into twenty-three state banks. He did not withdraw the government money already in the Bank of the United States. He said this money could be used to make payments until it was all gone.

新财长一上台,立即下令,从1836年10月1号开始,联邦资金全部存入23家州银行。他没有把美国银行里现有的联邦资金取走,决定让美国银行用这笔钱去付款,直到用完为止。

Nicholas Biddle, the head of the bank, fought back. He ordered the immediate repayment of all bank loans. He also withdrew from public use large numbers of bank notes. People had been using the notes as money.

美国银行行长尼克拉斯.比德尔毫不示弱。他下令,立即收回美国银行的所有贷款,同时还取消了流通领域内民众当做货币使用的大量票据。

VOICE TWO:

These actions caused serious economic difficulties throughout the country. Many businesses failed. They could not pay back their loans or borrow the money they needed. As businesses failed, workers lost their jobs.

这些行动在国内造成了严重的经济困境。很多公司因为无法偿还贷款,或是借不到钱,而被迫倒闭,很多人也因此失去了工作。

Nicholas Biddle said the Jackson administration was responsible for all the trouble. He said the bank was forced to take firm measures, because it was losing government money. He told people to protest to the administration. Critics of President Jackson's bank policy called him "King Andrew the First."

尼克拉斯.比德尔把经济困境归咎于杰克逊政府。他说,美国银行被迫采取强硬措施,因为他们失去了政府资金。他还告诉民众,可以对杰克逊政府提出抗议。对杰克逊的政策持批评态度的人把杰克逊称为“安德鲁国王一世”。

VOICE ONE:

Groups of businessmen called on the president at the White House. They urged him to put government money back into the bank. Jackson told one group: "I will never restore the money. I will never renew the charter of the Bank of the United States. If you want help, go to Nicholas Biddle. "

很多商业社团都强烈要求杰克逊把联邦资金重新转入美国银行。杰克逊告诉其中一个社团说,“我决不会把资金放回去,也决不会延长美国银行的特许经营权,如果你需要帮助,去找尼克拉斯.比德尔。”

VOICE TWO:

The president's actions worried even some of his supporters. There could be serious long-term effects of closing the Bank of the United States. Some of his supporters in Congress went to see him. They warned him of reports that a mob was forming to march on Washington. They told him that the mob planned to seize the Capitol building until Congress returned government money to the bank.

杰克逊的举动让他的不少支持者深感担忧。关闭美国银行会带来严重的长期影响。国会里一些杰克逊的支持者找到杰克逊,提醒他,有传闻说,一些暴民正在组织在华盛顿的集会游行。他们还告诉他,这些暴民打算占领国会,逼迫国会把联邦资金重新转入美国银行。

"Gentlemen," Jackson said, "I will be glad to see this mob on Capitol Hill. I will hang its leaders high. That should stop forever all attempts to control Congress by force."

杰克逊回答说,“先生们,我倒是要看看这些到国会来的暴民。我要把他们的首领吊死在高高的地方,这样就不会再有人试图武力控制国会了。”

We will continue our story of Andrew Jackson's second term as president next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Rich Kleinfeldt and Sarah Long.

Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found along with historical images at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English.

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
a funny little story: Jackson had a bullet in his body for almosht twenty years ,which got in duel. someone sugested Jackson should give it back to the family of the man who shot him. the family said that Jackson possessed the bullet for 20 years in his body, so ,under the law, Jackson was the ownership of the bullet. someone noted it was 19 years. the family said it was nothing, since Jackson took good care of the bullet in his body so long time, he didnt care about the extra year.
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