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#62: Jackson's Victory Over the Bank of the US

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Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

The national election of eighteen thirty-two put Andrew Jackson in the White House for a second term as president. One of the major events of his second term was the fight against the Bank of the United States. Jackson believed that the bank had grown too powerful. He urged Congress not to renew the bank's charter to do business. He also stopped putting federal money into the Bank of the United States. Instead, he put the money into state banks.

安德鲁.杰克逊在1832年的总统大选中当选连任。杰克逊第二届任期内的主要事件之一是跟美国银行的斗争。杰克逊觉得,美国银行的势力过于强大,他敦促国会不要再延长美国银行的特许经营权。他还停止了美国银行使用联邦资金的特权,并把联邦资金转入各州银行。

Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson

The head of the Bank of the United States was Nicholas Biddle. Biddle fought with all his power to keep the bank open. He created a financial panic and blamed it on President Jackson. Biddle did this by demanding immediate repayment of loans. Businesses struggled without the bank's financial assistance. Workers lost their jobs.

美国银行当时的行长是尼克拉斯.比德尔。比德尔千方百计能让美国银行继续经营下去。为了达到目的,比德尔不惜制造金融混乱,然后把责任推给杰克逊。比德尔的做法是,宣布立即收回贷款。很多公司因为没有了银行贷款,被迫倒闭,很多人也因此失去了饭碗。

President Jackson was warned that a mob could march on Washington. But nothing happened. Most of the battle against the Bank of the United States was fought in Congress.

有人警告杰克逊说,一群暴民要在华盛顿游行示威,但是这种情况并没有发生。围绕美国银行的斗争主要是在国会展开的。

Now, in this week's program in our series, we continue the story with Bob Doughty and Sarah Long.

VOICE ONE:

Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky led the support for the bank. Clay was head of the opposition political party, the National Republicans. Clay argued his case on the floor of the Senate for three days. He strongly urged the Senate to re-new the bank's charter. He said:

亨利.克莱参议员是共和党领袖,也是美国银行在国会参议院里的主要支持者。他整整花了三天的时间,在参议院里长篇大论,敦促参议院延长美国银行的特许经营权。

"The country is in the middle of a revolution ... not yet a bloody revolution. But things are happening that point to a total change of the pure republican character of our government. Power is being centered in the hands of one man." He meant President Jackson.

克莱说:“国家正在经历一场革命,虽然尚未流血,但是如果任其发展下去,美国政府纯洁的共和色彩就会彻底变质,权力会集中在一个人的手中。”克莱说的这个人显然就是杰克逊。

Clay added: "If Congress does not act, the government will fail. And we will all die as slaves." Clay then asked the Senate to condemn Jackson for violating the constitution and the nation's laws. The Senate approved the resolution.

克莱继续说:“如果国会不采取行动,政府就会垮台,我们都会象奴隶一样死去。”克莱随即要求参议院谴责杰克逊违反宪法和法律。参议院批准了克莱提出的决议。

VOICE TWO:

Things went better for Jackson in the House of Representatives. James Polk defended Jackson's opposition to the bank. Polk said: "The bank set itself up as a great, irresponsible, competing power of the government. If the bank wins this fight, no man afterwards can expect to be elected to high office in this country without first surrendering to the bank. The question is," Polk said, "if we shall have the republic without the bank or the bank without the republic."

众议院的情况要好一些。众议员詹姆斯.波尔克为杰克逊的美国银行政策提出辩护。他说:“美国银行培植势力,成为强大的、不负责任的,跟政府争夺权力的对手。如果让美国银行占了上风,今后任何人当选总统,都要屈从了美国银行才行。现在的问题是,我们是选择没有美国银行的共和国,还是没有共和国的美国银行。”

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

As time passed, businessmen began to see that the Bank of the United States was being much tighter in its money policy than was necessary. They began to feel that it was Biddle -- not Jackson -- who was responsible for the serious economic situation in the country. Biddle took no responsibility for the financial crisis. He said:

商人们慢慢发现,美国银行的放贷政策完全没有必要限制得那么严。他们开始意识到,自己面对的经济困境是比德尔、而不是杰克逊一手造成的。但比德尔却把责任推得一干二净。

"The relief must come from Congress, and Congress alone. The bank feels no need to right the wrongs caused by these miserable people. This president thinks he is to have his way with the bank. He is mistaken."

比德尔说:“出路只能来自国会。美国银行没有必要去纠正这些可怜人制造的错误。总统以为他可以让美国银行唯命是从,他错了。”

Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle

VOICE TWO:

Biddle then made a serious mistake. He asked the governor of Pennsylvania to make a speech to the state legislature--a speech supporting the bank. At the same time, Biddle refused to lend the state of Pennsylvania three hundred-thousand dollars.

然而,比德尔犯了一个致命的错误。他要求宾夕法尼亚州州长在州议会上发表一篇支持美国银行的讲话。但是与此同时,比德尔又拒绝接受宾夕法尼亚州三十万美元的贷款申请。

The governor was furious. Instead of making a speech supporting the bank, he made one that sharply criticized it. The upper house of the Pennsylvania legislature agreed with the governor. Although Nicholas Biddle threatened all sorts of action, the upper house passed a resolution that Congress should not give the bank a new charter.

宾夕法尼亚州州长一怒之下,不仅没有发表讲话支持美国银行,反而对美国银行提出了严辞批评。宾夕法尼亚州参议院同意州长的看法。尽管比德尔危言耸听,但是宾州参议院还是通过决议案,反对延长美国银行的经营特许权。

VOICE ONE:

Two days later, the governor of New York proposed that the state sell four or five million dollars of stock for loans to help state banks. The New York legislature approved selling even more.

两天后,纽约州长提议抛售400万到500万美元的股票,帮助州里的银行。纽约州议会不仅投票批准,而且还增加了抛售股票的数额。

This action would strengthen the state banks and help to break the power of the Bank of the United States. Nicholas Biddle began to see that the battle was lost. He started making more loans to businesses. The economic panic he had started slowly ended.

这一行动加强了纽约州内银行的实力,帮助他们摆脱美国银行的控制。比德尔看到败局已定,只好开始增加贷款,美国的经济困境也逐渐消失。

A Bank of the United States building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
A Bank of the United States building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

VOICE TWO:

Jackson's victory over the Bank of the United States was clear. Biddle started to lose the support of many members of Congress. In the House of Representatives, James Polk proposed four resolutions on the bank. One said the bank should not get a new charter.

在杰克逊总统跟美国银行的斗争中,美国银行最后败下阵来。行长比德尔也开始失去国会成员的支持。国会众议员詹姆斯.波尔克提出四项决议,其中一项是,不再延长美国银行的经营权。

The second resolution said government money should not be deposited in the bank. The third said the government should continue to put its money in state banks. And the fourth proposed an investigation of the bank and the reasons for the economic panic in the country. All four of these anti-bank resolutions were approved.

第二项决议是,政府资金不再存入美国银行。第三项决议是:政府继续将资金存入各州的银行。第四项决议是,对美国银行和金融困境的原因展开调查。结果,四项决议全部通过。

VOICE ONE:

One of Biddle's assistants described the feelings of bank officials.

比德尔的一位助手形容美国银行官员的感受时说:

"This day," he said, "should be ripped from the history of our republic. The president of the United States has seized the public treasury in violation of the law of the land. And the representatives of the people have approved his action."

“这一天,应该从共和国的历史中抹掉。美国总统背离法律,夺取了公共财政,他的行动居然得到了国会代表的批准。”

Jackson's words were shorter: "I have won a glorious triumph."

杰克逊对此的描述则简单得多。他说:“我取得了伟大的胜利。”

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The other major event of Andrew Jackson's second term as president was the situation in Texas. In an agreement with Spain in eighteen nineteen, the United States had given up its claim to Texas. In exchange, Spain gave the United States all of Florida.

安德鲁.杰克逊第二届任期内的另外一起重大事件发生在德克萨斯。美国1819年的时候跟西班牙达成协议,同意放弃德克萨斯,换取佛罗里达。

After Mexico won its independence from Spain in eighteen twenty-one, the United States tried to buy Texas. Mexico did not want to sell. When Andrew Jackson became president he, too, tried to buy Texas. Mexico still refused to sell.

墨西哥1821年宣布脱离西班牙独立后,美国试图收购德克萨斯,但是墨西哥不想卖。杰克逊当上总统后,又试图收购德州,再次遭到拒绝。

Stephen Austin
Stephen Austin

VOICE ONE:

Texas was a rich land. But it was empty. Mexico decided to permit Americans to build colonies in Texas. Stephen Austin formed the first colony in eighteen twenty-two. Each farming family in his colony could have about eighty hectares of land.

德克萨斯地域广阔,但是人烟稀少。墨西哥决定允许美国人在那里建立定居点。史蒂文.奥斯汀1822年建立了第一个定居点,定居点里的每一户家庭可以拥有80公顷土地。

Each family that wished to raise cattle could have about two thousand hectares. The settlers in Texas were able to buy the land for almost nothing. But they had to promise to join the Roman Catholic Church. They also had to promise to obey the laws of Mexico.

每个愿意养牛的家庭可以拥有大约两千公顷的土地。在德克萨斯定居下来的人虽然买地用不着花多少钱,但是必需保证加入罗马天主教会,并且保证遵守墨西哥的法律。

Most of the settlers came from the states of Tennessee, Mississippi and Louisiana. Many owned slaves and brought the slaves with them to Texas. During the eighteen twenties, Americans poured into Texas for the low-priced land.

当时,在德克萨斯定居的大多数人来自美国的田纳西、密西西比和路易斯安那一带。很多人都是奴隶主,带着奴隶来到德克萨斯。十九世纪二十年代,受到德克萨斯廉价土地的吸引,美国人蜂拥而至。

VOICE TWO:

The leader of one American colony got into trouble with the Mexican government. He was ordered to leave, but refused. With the help of a few supporters, he seized the town of Nacogdoches. He declared Texas to be an independent republic. He called it Fredonia.

美国定居点的一位领袖跟墨西哥政府发生了争执。墨西哥政府勒令他离开,但是他拒不服从。他率领一群支持者夺取了一个叫做纳科多奇斯的城镇,宣布德克萨斯为独立共和国,称之为弗雷多尼亚。

This man expected the other American colonists to join him against Mexico. He was wrong. Most of the colonists did not support him. In fact, some even joined the Mexican force that put down his rebellion. The man fled back across the border into the United States.

此人原以为其他美国定居者会跟他一起反对墨西哥,但是他错了。大多数定居者并不支持他的做法,有些人甚至参加墨西哥的部队,镇压反抗。这位领袖最后只好跑回美国。

VOICE ONE:

The rebellion failed. But it made Mexican leaders see the danger of continuing to permit Americans to settle in Texas. The Mexican government sent an official to inspect conditions along the border with the United States. The official reported that as he traveled north through Texas, he saw less and less that was Mexican and more and more that was American.

起义虽然被镇压下去了,但是墨西哥政府意识到,继续让美国人在德克萨斯定居会带来很多麻烦。墨西哥政府派遣一位官员,到墨西哥跟美国的边境一带视察。这位官员回来后报告说,他在德克萨斯一代,越往北走,墨西哥的痕迹就越少,美国的标志就越多。

He said there were very few Mexicans in some towns. And these Mexicans, he said, were extremely poor. He said the American settlers were not becoming true Mexicans. They were not speaking Spanish. They were not becoming Roman Catholics. And they were not accepting Mexican traditions. The official said the situation in Texas could throw the whole Mexican nation into revolution. He urged Mexico to send troops to occupy Texas.

他还说,一些城镇里几乎没有什么墨西哥人,为数不多的几个墨西哥人也都穷得叮当响。他说,美国定居者并没有变成真正的墨西哥人,他们不讲西班牙语,不信罗马天主教,不接受墨西哥传统。这位官员警告说,德克萨斯的局势可能会在墨西哥引发起义,并敦促政府出兵德克萨斯。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Bob Doughty and Sarah Long. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #62 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
the time of the sixth Presidency of the United States , Texas was still in the control of Spanish. The United States have really been built step by step.
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