官方APP下载:英语全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英语学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
网红英语口语课程——OMG美语,2011-2016完整课程视频打包下载发布!1170课,12.3G
手机微信学英语
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的微信小程序学英语。
英语全能特训(微信小程序)
UNSV英语学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
初级VIP会员
全站英语学习资料下载。
¥98元/12个月

#69: The Brief Presidency of William Henry Harrison

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版) 
文章正文
同步字幕

Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

In November of eighteen forty, the American people elected their ninth president, William Henry Harrison. The election of the retired general was expected. Still, it was a great victory for the Whig Party and a sharply felt loss for the opposing party, the Democrats. They failed to put their man, President Martin Van Buren, in the White House for a second term.

1840年,威廉.亨利.哈里森当选美国第九任总统。这位退役将军的胜选本在预料之中,是辉格党的一大胜利,也是对民主党人的重大政治打击,因为他们没能让范布伦当选连任。

William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison

Whig leaders made most of Harrison's campaign decisions. Some of those leaders, especially senators Henry Clay of Kentucky and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, believed they could control the newly elected president.

大选期间,哈里森的大部分竞选决策都是由辉格党领袖做出的。哈里森当选后,一些人觉得可以继续控制哈里森,特别是肯塔基州参议员亨利.克莱和麻萨诸塞州参议员丹尼尔.韦伯斯特。

But Harrison saw what was happening. When he made a trip to Kentucky, he made it clear that he did not want to meet with Clay. He felt that such a meeting might seem to show that Clay was the real power in the new administration.

p>哈里森把这一切都看在眼里。他当选后前往克莱所在的肯塔基州,但明确表示,不想跟克莱见面。哈里森担心,如果跟克莱见面的话,别人就会觉得,克莱才是新政府里的实权人物。

But Clay made sure that Harrison was publicly invited to visit him. The newly elected president could not say no to such an invitation. He spent several days at Clay's home in Lexington.

然而,克莱公开邀请哈里森去他家作客。哈里森无法拒绝,被迫在克莱位于莱克星顿的家里住了几天。

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles discuss the presidency of William Henry Harrison.

VOICE ONE:

Daniel Webster, without even being asked, wrote an inaugural speech for the new president. Harrison thanked him, but said he already had written his speech. Harrison spoke for more than one and a half hours. He gave the speech outside, on the front steps of the Capitol building.

与此同时,丹尼尔.韦伯斯特自做主张,帮哈里森撰写了就职演说词。哈里森婉言谢绝,并表示,自己已经写好了就职演说词。哈里森在国会大厦外面的台阶上发表了长达一个半小时的就职演说。

It was the coldest inaugural day in the nation's history. But Harrison did not wear a coat or hat. Harrison caught a cold, probably from standing so long outside in the bitter weather of inaugural day. Rest was his best treatment. But Harrison was so busy, he had little time to rest.

这是美国独立建国以来最寒冷的一个总统就职日,但是哈里森既没穿大衣,也没戴帽子。哈里森在宣誓就职那天着了谅,染上风寒,但是就职后繁忙的工作,又让他片刻不得休息。

VOICE TWO:

Hundreds of people demanded to see the new president. They wanted jobs with the government. Everywhere he turned, Harrison was met by crowds of job-hungry people. And there was a problem that worried him. Henry Clay and Daniel Webster were fighting each other for power in the new administration.

等待总统接见的有好几百人,他们都希望能在新政府里得到一份工作。哈里森所到之处,总会遇到急着找工作的人。另外一个问题也让哈里森伤透了脑筋,那就是,亨利.克莱和丹尼尔.韦伯斯特在新政府里争权夺利。

Harrison had offered Clay any job he wanted in the cabinet. But Clay chose to stay in the Senate. Harrison then gave the job of Secretary of State to Webster. He also gave Webster's supporters the best government jobs in New York City.

哈里森曾告诉克莱,内阁里的职务他可以随便挑选,但是克莱却选择留在参议院里。哈里森因此任命韦伯斯特担任国务卿,还把纽约市政府里最好的职务都给了韦伯斯特的支持者。

A drawing of William Henry Harrison as he lay dying
A drawing of William Henry Harrison as he lay dying

VOICE ONE:

Clay did not like this. And he told the president so. Harrison accused Clay of trying to tell him -- the president -- how to do his job. Later, he told Clay that he wanted no further words with him. He said any future communications between them would have to be written.

克莱对此十分不满,并且直截了当地把自己的怨气告诉了哈里森。哈里森指责克莱试图摆布自己,他后来又告诉克莱,跟他没有什么好说的,今后的一切交流都要通过书面的方式。

Harrison's health grew worse. Late in March eighteen forty-one, his cold turned into pneumonia. Doctors did everything they could to cure him. But nothing seemed to help. On April fourth, after exactly one month as president, William Henry Harrison died.

哈里森的健康状况日益恶化,1841年3月底转为肺炎,医生们用尽了办法,但是丝毫没有效果,宣誓就职一个月后,哈里森总统不幸病逝。

Vice President John Tyler was then at his home in Williamsburg, Virginia. Secretary of State Webster sent his son Fletcher on horseback to tell Tyler of the president's death. The vice President was shocked. He had not even known that Harrison was sick. Two hours after he received the news, Tyler was on his way to Washington. He reached the capital just before sunrise on April sixth, eighteen forty-one.

当时,副总统约翰.泰勒正呆在自己位于维吉尼亚威廉斯堡的家中。国务卿韦伯斯特让自己的儿子飞马前去报信。泰勒得知哈里森病逝的消息后深感震惊,因为在此之前,他甚至不知道哈里森身患重病。得知消息两小时后,泰勒匆匆动身,1841年4月6号太阳落山前返回首都华盛顿。

VOICE TWO:

There was some question about Tyler's position. This was the first time that a president had died in office. No one was really sure if the Constitution meant that the vice president was to become president or only acting president. Webster and the other members of the cabinet decided that Tyler should be president and serve until the next election. Tyler also had decided this.

当时,大家对泰勒的地位存在疑问。因为哈里森是第一个在任期内去世的总统,所有没有人知道,根据宪法规定,副总统是应该继任总统的职务,还是应该担任临时的代理总统。韦伯斯特和其他内阁成员决定,在下次大选前,应该由泰勒担任总统,这一决定跟泰勒的看法不谋而合。

Tyler was sworn-in as the tenth president on April sixth. He was fifty-one years old. No other man had become president at such an early age. Tyler was born and grew up in the same part of Virginia as William Henry Harrison. His father was a wealthy planter and judge who had been a friend of Thomas Jefferson.

约翰.泰勒4月6号宣誓就职,成为美国第10任总统。泰勒年仅51岁,是当时美国历史上最年轻的总统。泰勒跟去世的总统哈里森一样,也是在维吉尼亚出生长大,他的父亲是富有的种植园主、法官,是前总统托马斯.杰斐逊的朋友。

John completed studies at the college of William and Mary, and became a lawyer. He entered politics and served in the Virginia legislature. Then he was elected a member of Congress and, later, governor of Virginia. He also served as a United States senator.

约翰.泰勒从威廉和玛丽大学毕业后,当上了律师,后来从政,当选维吉尼亚州议会议员。再后来,泰勒又先后当选国会议员和维吉尼亚州的州长,他也曾担任过美国国会参议员。

John Tyler
John Tyler

VOICE ONE:

Tyler believed strongly in the rights of the states. As a congressman and a senator, he had voted against every attempt to give more power to the federal government.

泰勒是州权力的坚强捍卫者,每次有关扩大联邦政府权利的议案,他一律投反对票。

Tyler's political beliefs were strongly opposed to those of the northern and western Whigs. Henry Clay firmly supported the ideas of a national bank, a protective tax on imports, and federal spending to improve transportation in the states. Tyler was just as firmly against these ideas.

泰勒的政治理念跟美国北部和西部的辉格党人截然不同。比如说,辉格党领袖亨利.克莱坚决支持建立国家银行、对进口产品征收保护性关税,使用联邦资金改善各州的交通系统。然而,这些看法都是泰勒坚决反对的。

There was something else. Clay expected to be the Whig Party's presidential candidate in eighteen forty-four. If he supported Tyler, then the new president might become too strong politically and win a second term in the White House.

此外,克莱私下里希望成为辉格党1844年的总统候选人,如果他支持泰勒,泰勒的政治力量就会过于强大,从而可能会在1844年的大选中当选连任。

VOICE TWO:

Tyler quickly established his independence after becoming president. Webster told him that President Harrison had let the cabinet make the decisions of his administration. He said Harrison had only one vote...the same as any member of the cabinet. Webster asked if Tyler wanted this to continue.

泰勒就职后,迅速巩固自身地位。国务卿韦伯斯特告诉他说,哈里森在任时,政治决策完全由内阁决定,哈里森总统只有一票,跟其他内阁成员一样。韦伯斯特问泰勒是否希望继续这样做。

"I do not," said Tyler. "I would like to keep President Harrison's cabinet. But I, alone, will make the decisions. If the cabinet members do not approve of this, let them resign."

泰勒的回答是,“不。我愿意保留哈里森总统的内阁,但是一切决定我说了算,如果哪个内阁成员不同意,他们可以辞职。”

Tyler wanted to change the cabinet, but could not do so immediately. All but two members of the cabinet were supporters of Senator Clay. Tyler wanted to put these men out and appoint men who would support him. But if he did this immediately, it would split the party. He would have to wait.

其实,泰勒很希望调整内阁的组成,但是又不能立即动手。当时的内阁里除了两个人以外,其余都是克莱参议员的亲信。泰勒希望把他们赶走,换上自己的人马,但是他知道,如果立即动手的话,就会造成辉格党的分裂,所以他必须耐心等待。

Henry Clay
Henry Clay

VOICE ONE:

The Whig Party controlled both houses of Congress after the eighteen forty elections. Clay wanted a special session of the new Congress. He was able to get Harrison to call such a session before the president's death. At the session, Clay offered six resolutions as a plan of work for Congress. These proposed putting an end to the independent treasury, the establishment of a new national bank, and a tax increase on imports. They also included a new plan to give the states the money received by the federal government from the sale of public lands.

1840年大选后,国会参众两院都在辉格党的控制之下。克莱希望召集新国会的特别会议,并设法让哈里森总统在病逝前下达了命令。国会特别会议期间,克莱提出了六项决议,包括停止独立财政、建立新的国家银行、增加进口税,还有一项新计划,让联邦政府把出售公共土地得到的收益分配给各州支配。

It was no problem to put an end to the independent treasury. Tyler had opposed it during the campaign and in his message to Congress. Congress soon passed a bill repealing the independent treasury act. And Tyler quickly signed it.

泰勒参加大选时就明确反对独立财政,在对国会发表讲话时,再次重申了自己的立场。因此,国会迅速通过法案,取消了独立财政法,法案经泰勒签字生效。

VOICE TWO:

But a dispute arose on the issue of a new national bank. Tyler had his Secretary of the Treasury send Congress the administration's plan for a national bank. It would permit such a bank to be established in Washington. And it would permit the bank to open offices in a state, but only if the state approved.

然而,建立新的国家银行的问题却引起了争议。泰勒和他的财政部长向国会呈交了建立国家银行的计划,银行总部设在华盛顿,可以在各州开设分行,前提条件是要得到各州的批准。

This was not the kind of bank Clay wanted. He wanted no limits of any kind on the power of a national bank to open offices anywhere in the country. Clay then offered a bill that would create just this kind of bank. There was much debate. And Clay finally agreed to a compromise. Bank offices would be permitted in any state where the state legislature did not immediately refuse permission.

这可不是克莱想要的。克莱心目中的国家银行有权在任何地方开设分行。克莱因此提出了自己的方案,并引起了一场激烈辩论。克莱最后接受妥协:只要州议会不拒绝,国家银行就可以在那里开设分行。

VOICE ONE:

The Congress accepted the compromise. But President Tyler did not. He vetoed the bank bill and sent it back to Congress. This had been a difficult decision for Tyler to make. He wanted peace and unity in the party. But he also wanted to show that he -- and not Henry Clay -- was president. The people knew he opposed Clay's bill. If he accepted it, the people would feel that Clay was the more powerful.

妥协方案得到了国会的批准,但却遭到了泰勒的否决,议案被打回国会重新讨论。泰勒这样做也有自己的苦衷:一方面,他希望保持党内和睦团结;另一方面,他又希望表明,他才是真正的总统,不是克莱。大家知道他反对克莱的提案,如果他接受了,别人就会觉得克莱比他更厉害。

Clay did not have enough votes to pass the bill over the president's veto. Another effort was made to get a bank bill that the president would approve. This time, members of Congress met with Tyler to get his ideas. He explained, again, the kind of bank he would accept. He said the states must have the right to approve or reject bank offices.

克莱没有争取到足够的支持票推翻泰勒的否决。国会对议案进行修改,希望能被总统接受。为此,国会议员专门找到泰勒,征求他的意见。泰勒再次重申了自己的要求,那就是,各州必须有权接受或是拒绝国家银行在本州内开设分行。

The congressmen wrote another bill. They said it was exactly what the president wanted. But the president did not agree. He said this second bill would also be vetoed unless changes were made in it. The changes were not made. And Tyler did as he said he would do. He vetoed it. This second veto caused a crisis in Tyler's cabinet.

国会成员对议案进行修改后,再次递交总统签署。但是泰勒表示,这份议案还是不符合他的要求,除非再改,否则他就要再度行使否决权。国会拒绝修改,泰勒也言出必行,否决了议案。谁知,这次否决在泰勒内阁里引起了一场危机。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are on the Web, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #69 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
Willim Henry Harrison, the ninth president of the United States, died after only a month of his presidency because of serious pneumonia. he had had one and a half hours's inaugural speech outside in the coldest day . it maybe the direct cause of his sickness. after his death, John Tyler who had been a vice president took his office in White House. Tyler was the tenth president.
版权所有©2003-2018 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
网站备案:苏ICP备05000269号-1中国工业和信息化部网站备案查询
广播台