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#7: Slavery Arrives as Colonial Expansion Heads South

作者:Nancy Steinbach 发布日期:1-23-2013


This is Rich Kleinfeldt.


And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

Today, we finish the story about the first thirteen American colonies. We tell about how the southern colonies developed.



The most northern of the southern colonies was Maryland. The king of England, Charles the First, gave the land between Virginia and Pennsylvania to George Calvert in sixteen thirty-two. George Calvert was also called Lord Baltimore. He was a Roman Catholic.


George Calvert wanted to start a colony because of religious problems in England. Catholics could not openly observe their religion. They also had to pay money to the government because they did not belong to the Anglican Church, which was the Church of England.


George Calvert never saw the colony that was called Maryland. He died soon after he received the documents. His son Cecil Calvert became the next Lord Baltimore, and received all the land. He had the power to collect taxes, fight wars, make laws and create courts in Maryland. Cecil Calvert named his brother Leonard as the colony's first governor.


Cecil Calvert, center, the second Lord of Baltimore, in a work by artist James Barry
Cecil Calvert, center, the second Lord of Baltimore, in a work by artist James Barry

Cecil Calvert believed that English Catholics could live in peace in Maryland with people who believed in Protestant religions. So he urged Catholics to leave England. To get more settlers, he permitted them to own their farms and gave them some power in local politics. Some Catholics did go to Maryland, but not as many as expected. Protestants were in the majority. In sixteen forty-nine, Lord Baltimore accepted a Toleration Act passed by the local government. It guaranteed freedom of religion, but only for Christians.

塞西尔·卡尔弗特相信,英国的天主教徒在马里兰可以跟新教徒和睦相处。他因此呼吁天主教徒离开英国。为了吸引更多的定居者,他还让定居者拥有自己的农场, 甚至让他们在地方政治中享有一定的权力。这些措施确实吸引了一些天主教徒,但没有预计的那么多,马里兰还是以新教信徒为主。1649年,巴尔的摩勋爵接受 了当地政府通过的“容忍法案”,保证宗教自由,但是只适用于基督徒。



King Charles the Second of England gave away more land in America in sixteen sixty-three. This time, he gave to eight English lords the land known as Carolina. It extended south from Virginia into an area known as Florida. Spain controlled Florida. Spain also claimed the southern part of Carolina.


Spanish, French and English settlers had tried to live in that area earlier. But they were not successful. But the eight new owners promised forty hectares of land to anyone who would go to Carolina to live. They also promised religious freedom. The first successful Carolina settlers left England in sixteen seventy. They built a town in an area where two rivers met. They called it Charles Town, for King Charles. Spanish ships attacked the port city many times, but the settlers kept them away.

在此之前,西班牙、法国和英国人曾试图在那个地区定居,但都没有成功。接受封地的八位英国勋爵为了吸引定居者,不仅允诺给每人 拨地40公顷,而且保证定居者享受宗教自由。卡罗来纳的第一批英国定居者是1670年离开英国的,他们在卡罗来纳两条河流交汇的地方建立了一个小镇,把小 镇命名为查理镇。西班牙舰船多次对小镇发动袭击,都被查理镇的居民击退。

The settlers planted all kinds of crops to see what would grow best. They found rice was just right for the hot, wet land. Their pigs and cattle did so well that settlers in Carolina started selling meat to the West Indies. Many of Charles Town's settlers came from Barbados, a port used in the West Indies slave trade. The settlers began buying black slaves to help grow the rice. By seventeen-oh-eight, more blacks than whites lived in southern Carolina. The work of slaves made possible a successful economy.

卡罗来纳的定居者尝试种植各种粮食,结果发现当地炎热潮湿的土地最适合种植稻米。他们还成功养殖了猪、牛,并开始向西印度群岛销售猪肉和牛肉。查理镇的很 多居民都是从西印度群岛一个进行奴隶交易的港口城镇巴巴多斯来的。他们开始购买黑奴,把他们带到卡罗来纳的农场种植稻米。到1708年,卡罗来纳南部黑人 的人数已经超过了白人,黑奴的工作创造了经济的辉煌。


Northern Carolina grew much more slowly than the southern part of the colony. Many settlers to this area were from nearby Virginia. People who did not agree with the Anglican Church were not welcome in Virginia. Some of them moved south to the northern part of Carolina. History experts say that the area that became North Carolina may have been the most democratic of all the colonies. The people generally did not get involved in each other's lives. They permitted each other to live in peace. They faced danger together from pirates who made the North Carolina coast their headquarters.


Experts say the people in northern Carolina were independent thinkers. In sixteen seventy-seven, some of them rebelled against England. They did not like England's Navigation Acts. These laws forced people in Carolina to pay taxes to England on goods sold to other colonies. Some northern Carolina settlers refused to pay this tax. They even set up their own government and tried to break free of England. But the English soldiers in the colonies stopped the rebellion by arresting its leader.


The differences between the people of northern Carolina and southern Carolina became too great. The owners of the colony divided Carolina into two parts in seventeen twelve.



James Oglethorpe was a rich member of Parliament who used his own money to settle the new colony of Georgia
James Oglethorpe was a rich member of Parliament who used his own money to settle the new colony of Georgia

The last English colony founded in the New World was Georgia. It was established in seventeen thirty-two, under King George the Second. Georgia was the idea of a man named James Oglethorpe. He wanted to solve the debtor problem in England. Debtors are people who cannot re-pay money they owe. At that time, debtors were placed in prison. This made it impossible for them to earn the money needed to pay their debts. Oglethorpe wanted to create a colony where debtors could go instead of going to prison. He wanted it to be a place where people could have good lives.

乔治亚是1732年在英国国王乔治二世任期内建立的。当时在英国,负债累累的人会被投入大牢,但是这样一来,他们就更没办法赚钱还债了。为了解决这个问 题,一个叫詹姆士·欧格雷梭皮的人提出,与其把这些人送进监狱,不如把他们送到殖民地去,给他们一个重新开始的机会。

But not many debtors wanted to go to Georgia. The people who settled there were much like the people in the other colonies. They did not agree with all of Oglethorpe's ideas. They wanted to do things he did not believe were right, like drinking alcohol and owning slaves. The settlers won in the end. They did not accept Oglethorpe's ideas about how they should live.


Life was not easy in Georgia. Spaniards and pirates captured ships of all nations along the coast. Spain controlled Florida and also claimed Georgia and the Carolinas. Border fights were common. Oglethorpe lost all his money trying to establish Georgia. King George took control of the colony in seventeen fifty-two.

然而,在乔治亚的生活并不轻松。西班牙人和海盗经常在沿海劫掠船只。西班牙人不仅控制着佛罗里达地区,而且声称乔治亚和卡罗来纳也是他们的,使乔治亚边界 地区冲突不断。欧格雷梭皮为了建立乔治亚,把自己的钱花了个精光。国王乔治因此于1752年接管了对乔治亚的控制权。



As all these new colonies were being established nearby, the colony of Virginia was growing. A way of life was developing there that was very different from that found in the north. Most people in Virginia at this time were members of the Church of England. Religion was not as important a part of their lives as it was to the people in the north. In the New England colonies, the clergy were considered the most important people in town. In the southern colonies, rich land owners were more important.

与此同时,维吉尼亚逐渐壮大,并形成了一种跟北部殖民地截然不同的生活方式。当时,维吉尼亚大部分居民都是英国圣公会成员,宗教对他们来说并不象对北方殖 民者那么重要。在新英格兰,牧师神父是镇里最重要的人物,但是在南方,最显赫的却是有钱的农场主。

People in Virginia did not live in towns, as people did in Massachusetts. They lived along rivers on small farms or on large farms called plantations. Living on a river made it easy to send goods to other nations by ship. Virginians were sending large amounts of tobacco to England on those ships. It was the crop that earned them the most money.



Growing tobacco destroys the elements in the soil that support plant life. After a few years, nothing grows well on land that has been planted with tobacco. A farmer has to stop planting anything on the land every few years. That means he needs a lot of land. He also needs many workers. So tobacco farmers in Virginia began to buy land and workers.


At first, they bought the services of poor people who had no money or jobs. These people were called indentured servants. They made an agreement to work for a farmer for a period of four to seven years. Then they were freed to work for themselves.


Slaves preparing dried tobacco to be shipped to England from Jamestown
Slaves preparing dried tobacco to be shipped to England from Jamestown

In sixteen nineteen, a Dutch ship brought some Africans to Jamestown. They had been kidnapped from their homes by African traders and sold to the ship's captain. He sold them to the Virginia settlers. Those first blacks may have been treated like indentured servants. Later, however, colonists decided to keep them as slaves so they would not have to continue paying for workers. Indians did not make good slaves because they could run away. Blacks could not. They had no place to go. Slowly, laws were approved in Virginia that made it legal to keep black people as slaves. By seventeen fifty, there were more Africans in Virginia than any other group.

1619年,一艘荷兰船带着一些非洲黑人来到了詹姆斯镇。这些人都是从家乡被绑架来的,船长把他们卖给维吉尼亚定居者。起初,这些黑人的身份跟契约工类 似,但是后来,殖民者为了不再花钱雇人,决定把黑人当作奴隶。印第安人不适合做奴隶,因为他们随时可能逃走,但是黑人不一样,他们无处可去。再后来,维吉尼亚颁布了法律,使蓄奴合法化。到1750年的时候,黑人已经成了维吉尼亚最大的族群。


History experts continue to debate if slavery caused prejudice in America or prejudice caused slavery. No one knows the answer. Most Europeans of the seventeenth century felt they were better than African people. The reasons for this included the Africans' different customs, religion and the black color of their skin. Europeans believed the color black represented danger and death.

Slavery in the American south affected the history of the United States for many years. It divided the people and led to a great civil war.


But slavery did not start in America. That will be our story next week.


This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is Sarah Long.


And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

2-4-2013 17:34:53
Planting Tobacco was the most profit indusry in the south. However,growing tobacco destroyed the element in the soil that support plant life. A farmer has to stop planting anything on the land every few years. Therefore ,he needs many workers and a lot of land. That is the economic driving force for slavery syestem.
2-19-2013 12:51:41
a lot of land
3-25-2013 19:41:5
If slavery caused prejudice or prejudice caused slavery? No one knows the answer.Anyway, having the strength and wisdom is the most important!
1-26-2014 5:25:39
The civil war~~
7-12-2014 19:6:21
Numerous hectares of land were granted to attract English settlers to live in Carolina.People began to trade slaves in Carolina since late 19th century.Slavery emerged in Virginia after a Dutch captain shipped a batch of African to North America. The Northern Carolina inhabitants refused to pay taxes and a rebellion broke out. Their leader was arrested.Spain held the Florida, and had fights with English colonies. At last, be good to the slaves, for they can be the later Presidents.
1-2-2015 16:22:54
The trade of slaves was illegal and terrible in history . The initial slaves were African who have no freedom to choose his life style not even speech in public . The number of owning slaves became the measure of wealth of the rich .
1-2-2015 16:23:2
Slavery cause the prejudice in America . The white felt the color black represent the danger and death . How can they judgy people by the color of skin ? It is unfair ! Slavery in American soutch affected the history of the US for many years and it devided the people and led to a great Civil war .
7-6-2015 9:20:37
Since black slaves generally become the majority of colonies that permit slavery, why they are so vulnerable and obedient that they stand up together to fight for their freedoms? it's explicitly elusive that those settlers pursue religion and claim to follow the God while doing such bloody dirty and evil slavery things? liars!!
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