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#75: Zachary Taylor Is Elected President in 1848

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ANNOUNCER:

Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

General Zachary Taylor
General Zachary Taylor

The Whig Party considered four candidates for the presidential election of eighteen forty-eight: Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky, General Zachary Taylor, General Winfield Scott and Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts.

1848年总统大选前,辉格党推举了四位人选,他们分别是:扎卡里·泰勒将军、亨利·克莱参议员、温菲尔德·斯科特将军和麻萨诸塞州参议员丹尼尔·韦伯斯特。

Clay was seventy years old. He knew it would be his last chance to get into the White House. He worked hard to get the support of party leaders. But they did not give Clay their support. They wanted to win the election, and they felt they had a better chance for victory with a military hero like General Taylor.

克莱参议员当时已经70高龄,他知道,要想入主白宫,这是自己的最后一次机会了,所以竭尽全力,争取辉格党领袖的支持。然而,辉格党人并没有鼎立支持克莱。他们觉得,战斗英雄泰勒将军的胜算更大。

Now, with this week's program in our series, here are Doug Johnson and Gwen Outen.

VOICE ONE:

Taylor was sixty-three years old. He had almost no formal education. He had spent almost forty years in the West as an Indian fighter and commander of small army posts.

泰勒将军63岁,没受过多少正规教育。他一辈子将近四十年都在西部打印第安人,担任哨所指挥官。

A number of politicians did not believe he had the ability to be president. General Taylor's supporters put great energy into their campaign for his nomination. They tried to sell the idea that the old general was the only man who could defeat the candidate of the Democratic Party.

一部分政界人物觉得泰勒并不具备总统的素质。然而,泰勒的支持者们全力以赴,推动他的提名,把他说成是击败民主党候选人的唯一人选。

On the first vote of the convention, Taylor got the most votes. But no candidate got the necessary majority. On the fourth vote, all of Webster's supporters and many of Clay's supporters gave their votes to Taylor. He finally won the Whig Party's nomination for president.

大会第一轮表决结果,泰勒得到了大部分选票,但是没有获得所需要的多数。到第四轮投票的时候,韦伯斯特的所有支持者和克莱的一部分支持者都把选票投给了泰勒,使泰勒赢得了提名。

VOICE TWO:

Lewis Cass, the Democratic presidential candidate
Lewis Cass, the Democratic presidential candidate

The Democratic Party's candidate for president was Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan. Many Americans did not like either candidate, because of the candidates' policies on slavery. Lewis Cass saw nothing wrong with slavery if that was what the people wanted. Zachary Taylor was a slave owner.

与此同时,民主党总统候选人是密西根州参议员刘易斯·卡斯。很多美国人对这两位候选人都不满意。刘易斯·卡斯主张,只要大家同意接受,蓄奴也没什么不好,而泰勒本人就是奴隶主。

In Ohio, a group of men decided to form a new political party. They called it the Free Soil Party, because they believed in free land for free settlers. They wanted no further spread of slavery.

俄亥俄的一批人因此决定另立门户,称之为“自由土地党”,因为他们主张,自由定居者应该免费获得土地,同时反对奴隶制度的进一步推广。

The Free Soil leaders proposed a convention of all who supported their ideas. Ten thousand people went to the convention in Buffalo, New York.

自由土地党领袖召集所有支持这一理念的人在纽约布法罗开会,结果有一万人出席。

For two days, the delegates debated the slavery issue and discussed their choice of a candidate for president. They also worked on a platform -- a statement of their party's purpose.

与会代表用了两天的时间讨论蓄奴问题,推举总统候选人,并制定出了自己的政治纲领。

VOICE ONE:

The platform declared that slavery was an institution of the states, not the nation. It said Congress had no right to help spread slavery by permitting it in the new western territories. The platform declared that the issue should be faced with firmness. No more slave states. No more slave territory. No more compromises with slavery, anywhere.

政治纲领宣称:奴隶制度不是国家,而是各州的体制,国会无权允许西部新增土地上实行蓄奴的政策,并以此促进奴隶制的进一步推广。自由土地党的政治纲领还宣布,在蓄奴问题上一定要坚决,不能让更多的奴隶州,让更多的奴隶地域出现,在任何地方都不能对蓄奴问题上做出丝毫妥协。

Convention delegates then voted on candidates. They chose former President Martin Van Buren as candidate for president.

与会代表随后投票表决,推举前总统范布伦为自由土地党的总统候选人。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The people of the nation voted on November seventh. It was the first time a presidential election was held on the same day in all parts of the country. Zachary Taylor won both the popular and electoral votes. He became the twelfth president of the United States.

1848年11月7号,美国举行总统大选,这也是全美各地第一次在同一天举行大选。普选和选举人票的计票结果显示,胜利者都是扎卡里·泰勒,泰勒当选为美国第12位总统。

Congress met a few weeks after the election, long before Taylor took office. It faced serious problems. Territorial governments were needed for the areas won in the war against Mexico.

大选结束几周后,泰勒尚未就职前,国会开会讨论在墨西哥战争中新增土地上建立地方政府的问题。

California, especially, needed help. Gold had been discovered in California. Thousands were moving there. A government was needed to protect the lives and property of the new population.

加利福尼亚地区的问题尤其紧迫。因为加利福尼亚刚刚发现了金矿,成千上万的人在那里安家落户,他们的生命和财产需要政府的保护。

VOICE ONE:

The dispute over slavery had prevented Congress from acting earlier. Southerners wanted the right to take slaves into the new territories. Northerners wanted to keep slavery out.

然而,蓄奴的争议让国会举步维艰。南方人希望把奴隶带到新增土地上去,但是北方人极力反对。

Then there was the question of laws forcing northern states to return escaped slaves to their owners. The laws were not always obeyed. Southerners wanted a new law that would be easier to enforce.

与此同时,根据法律,北方各州必需将逃亡奴隶遣送给他们的奴隶主,但是北方很少有人遵守这项法律。南方人希望能制定一项更加便于执行的新法。

Congress found it difficult to act on these problems. The House of Representatives was controlled by members of the Free Soil Party, which opposed slavery. The Senate was controlled by southerners, who supported slavery. The two houses found it almost impossible to agree on anything.

在上述问题上,国会遇到了很大的阻力。国会众议院由反对蓄奴的自由土地党人控制,国会参议院则在支持蓄奴的南方人的掌握之中。参众两院几乎很难在任何问题上达成共识。

Early in January, eighteen forty-nine, a congressman proposed a bill to first limit, and then end, slavery in the District of Columbia. The bill would free all slaves in the district who were born after a certain time. It would permit the federal government to buy slaves and then free them.

1849年1月,一位国会议员建议在哥伦比亚特区限制并逐步消除奴隶制度。根据议案,凡是特定日期以后出生的奴隶一律可以成为自由人。议案允许联邦政府出钱收购奴隶,然后给他们自由。

VOICE TWO:

Opposition to the bill was strong. It was amended. The new bill would simply close all places in the District of Columbia where slaves were bought and sold.

议案在国会遭到了强烈反对,修改后的议案只要求关闭哥伦比亚特区一切出售和购买奴隶的场所。

Southern congressmen disliked the bill, even as amended. They organized a committee representing every one of the southern states. Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina said the committee should write a declaration explaining the position of the South. The committee agreed, and Calhoun wrote most of the declaration himself.

即便如此,来自南方的国会议员还是对这项议案十分不满。他们组织了一个代表南部各州的委员会,南卡罗来纳州参议员约翰·卡尔霍恩说,委员会应该撰写宣言,阐明南方立场。委员会成员表示同意。卡尔霍恩是这份宣言的主要作者。

VOICE ONE:

The southern declaration accused the North of many aggressions. The South, it said, faced many dangers. Soon there would be enough free states to control both the House and the Senate. And then the Constitution would be changed and all slaves would be freed.

这份南方宣言历数北方罪责。宣言说,南方面临很多危险,用不了多久,非奴隶州就会控制国会参众两院,接下来,宪法就会被修正,所有奴隶都会获得自由。

And this, said the southern declaration, would lead to bitter hostility and war between North and South. The declaration called on the people of the South to unite and be firm in their opposition to the North.

宣言说,这种情况将会引起南北双方的敌对和战争。宣言号召南方人团结一致,坚定地反对北方的立场。

VOICE TWO:

With this new firmness, southern lawmakers fought to make slavery legal in the new territories. They effectively blocked proposals for territorial governments in California and New Mexico.

国会南方议员带着这种决心,竭尽全力在新领土上实现蓄奴的合法化,并有效阻止了在加利福尼亚和新墨西哥建立地方政府的提案。

Congress ended its session on March fourth, eighteen forty-nine, without any progress. Zachary Taylor was sworn-in as president that same day.

1849年3月4号国会休会时,在新增领土上设立地方政府的问题毫无进展。扎卡里·泰勒同一天宣誓就职。

The new president believed it would be easier to get statehood for California and New Mexico than to create territorial governments for them. Taylor, as we have said, was a slaveholder. But he believed that both California and New Mexico should be free states.

泰勒认为,让加利福尼亚和新墨西哥成为美国的州,要比在当地建立地方政府更容易办到。泰勒本人虽然是奴隶主,但他认为,加利福尼亚和新墨西哥应该成为自由州。

VOICE ONE:

An 1850 cartoon of Zachary Taylor trying to balance southern and northern interests on the question of slavery
An 1850 cartoon of Zachary Taylor trying to balance southern and northern interests on the question of slavery

During these years around eighteen fifty, the people of the United States were becoming more and more involved in the dispute over slavery. In the North, more people joined the anti-slavery campaign. Even those who did not wish to end slavery in the South felt that slavery should not spread further.

1850年前后,有关蓄奴问题的大辩论在美国风起云涌。越来越多的北方人加入反对蓄奴的运动,即使是南方一些不希望结束蓄奴的人也反对奴隶制度的进一步推广。

In the South, many people felt that the constitutional equality of fifteen southern states was being questioned. Sixteen hundred million dollars worth of slave property was threatened by Abolitionists. Southerners felt that if the campaign against slavery was successful, everything they believed in would be destroyed.

南方很多人觉得,宪法赋予美国十五个州的平等权利受到了质疑,废奴主义者让价值十六亿美元的奴隶财产受到威胁。南方人感觉,反对蓄奴的成功,就意味着他们信仰的全盘毁灭。

People hoped that President Taylor would be able to bring the North and South together again. But his message to Congress showed no signs of such leadership.

大家都希望,泰勒总统能促使南方和北方团结起来,但是泰勒向国会的表态丝毫没有显示出人民所希望的这种领导风范。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Taylor asked Congress to give statehood to California immediately. He reported that California leaders had written a state constitution. The constitution banned slavery. Settlers from both the North and South supported the document.

泰勒要求国会立即给予加利福尼亚州的编制,他告诉国会说,加利福尼亚领导人编写了州宪法,禁止蓄奴,得到了来自南方和北方定居者的一致支持。

The president also reported that the people of New Mexico would be asking for statehood soon. He said it would be best to let the people themselves decide if New Mexico would be a slave or free state. Taylor's opponents described these proposals as his "no action plan."

泰勒还告诉国会,新墨西哥居民不久也会申请成为一个州,他表示,新墨西哥是否允许蓄奴,最好由当地人自己决定。泰勒的反对者说,这些提案是泰勒的“无为计划”。

VOICE ONE:

President Taylor really had no policy. He could not support a bill to keep slavery out of the territories. That might start a quick revolt among the southern states. He could not support a bill to let slavery spread into the territories. That would make the North rise in anger.

泰勒总统确实没有明确的政策。如果支持在新领地上禁止蓄奴,就会引起南方各州的激烈反抗;与此同时,他又不能支持奴隶制度向新领地的推广,因为这样无疑会引起北方人的愤怒。

Taylor tried to be neutral. He hoped the problem of slavery would solve itself. But the problem would not solve itself. The division between North and South grew wider. That will be our story next week.

泰勒努力保持中立。他希望蓄奴问题的争议会自然消失,结果事与愿违,南方和北方在蓄奴问题上的分歧越来越大。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Doug Johnson and Gwen Outen. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, are at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #75 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:Alumni
yes, in this section i have learned that the Gold Rush had happened in California around in 1840es.and the issue of the slavery is more and more serious. so the Civil War would broke out before long.
作者:郑烈波
balance is difficult .usa how to load?
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