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#87: Brigham Young Leads His Mormons to a New Home

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Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

In the eighteen twenties, in the state of New York, a man named Joseph Smith started the Mormon religion. Smith based it on what he said were God's words to the ancient people of America.

十九世纪二十年代,纽约州一个名叫约瑟夫.史密斯的年轻人开创了摩门教。摩门教的基础是史密斯所说的上帝对古代美洲居民的训导。

An early photograph of Nauvoo in Illinois
An early photograph of Nauvoo in Illinois

Many people became members of the new church. Others, however, laughed at some of the beliefs of the Mormons. This led to trouble. Smith had to move his people many times. For a while, they settled in the state of Illinois, in a town they built and called Nauvoo.

摩门教吸引了很多教徒加入,但是另外一些人则对摩门教的教义不以为然,最终引起了摩门教徒和非摩门教徒之间的矛盾。史密斯为此不得不多次率众搬迁,最终在伊利诺伊州安顿下来。摩门教徒自己动手兴建了一个城镇,取名诺伍。

The church split when Joseph Smith said that Mormons could have more than one wife. The split led to violence and public opposition to the Mormons. Smith was arrested and put in jail. A mob attacked the jail and killed Smith and his brother. The governor of Illinois ordered the Mormons to leave the state.

后来,史密斯宣布,摩门教徒可以实行一夫多妻制,这引起教会分裂,进而导致暴力冲突,使摩门教徒成为众矢之的。史密斯和他的兄弟被逮捕后,暴民冲击监狱,将史密斯兄弟双双打死。伊利诺伊州长勒令摩门教徒离开伊利诺伊。

This week on our series, Sarah Long and Richard Rael discuss relations between the Mormons and the federal government.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Brigham Young became the new leader of the Mormons. He told his people that he had seen their new home in a dream. He said it was a wide, beautiful valley in the West. He said he would recognize it when he saw it.

摩门教徒推举杨伯翰担任教会的新领袖。杨伯翰告诉追随者说,他在梦里看到了摩门教的新家。杨伯翰说,他们的新家在西部一个宽广美丽的峡谷。他说,只要到了那里,他就能认得出来。

The Mormons left Illinois in the spring of eighteen forty-six. There were more than fifteen thousand people, and many wagons and farm animals. The trip west was hard. Many of the people died. After months of slow travel, they stopped to make their winter camp.

摩门教徒1846年启程离开伊利诺伊,包括一万五千多人,外加很多马车和牲畜。西行之路困难重重,很多人死在了路上。长途跋涉几个月后,他们停下来安营扎寨,准备过冬。

VOICE TWO:

Settler wagons enter the valley of the Great Salt Lake in Utah
Settler wagons enter the valley of the Great Salt Lake in Utah

Explorers visited the camp. They told Brigham Young about a great salt lake in a wide valley on the western side of the Rocky Mountains. From the way they described it, young believed it was the valley of his dream.

杨伯翰听探险家说,洛矶山脉西侧一个宽广的峡谷里有一个大盐湖。杨伯翰听后觉得,这就是他梦里到过的地方。

He started to move his people toward the Great Salt Lake as soon as the winter snows melted. They arrived in the summer of eighteen forty-seven. Brigham Young looked out over the valley. "This," he said, "is the right place."

冬天的积雪一融化,杨伯翰就率领摩门教徒向大盐湖的方向进发。1847年夏天,他们终于抵达了目的地。杨伯翰眺望峡谷后说,“就是这里”。

VOICE ONE:

The Mormons wasted no time. Two hours after arriving, they began to prepare the ground for planting. The lake water was too salty to use. So they built a system of canals to bring water down from the mountains.

摩门教徒们分秒必争,到达两小时后,就开始为播种做准备。盐湖的水盐分太高,不能用于灌溉。他们就修筑运河,引水下山。

The first few years were difficult. Cold weather and insects destroyed their crops. Yet the Mormons continued to work hard to make their settlement a success. They refused to think of leaving.

最初几年遇到了重重困难,寒冷的天气和病虫害毁坏了庄稼。但是摩门教徒百折不挠,绝不离开,决心坚守下去。

VOICE TWO:

At first, the Mormons were ruled only by the laws of their church and by their leader. Then gold was discovered in California. Many non-Mormons passed through the Salt Lake area on their way to the gold fields. Some of them stayed. It soon became clear that new laws were needed to govern the growing population.

起初,摩门教徒只受教义和教会领袖的管理。后来,加州发现了金矿。一些途径大盐湖地区去淘金的人留了下来,当地人口不断增加,因此需要制定新的法律,管理越来越多的人口。

The Mormons asked Congress to approve a territorial government for their land. They called the land Deseret. That was a Mormon word meaning honeybee.

摩门教徒要求国会批准他们在大盐湖地区建立一个地方政府。他们给当地取名Deseret,意思是“蜜蜂”。

The Mormons claimed a large area. It stretched from the mountains of Colorado west to the mountains of California; from Arizona north to Oregon.

摩门教占据了很大一片地方,从科罗拉多山脉向西,一直延伸到加利福尼亚山脉,从亚利桑那向北,一直延伸到俄勒冈。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Congress rejected the large claim of Deseret and made it a much smaller territory. It also refused to accept the name Deseret. Instead, Congress called it Utah, after the Ute tribe of Native American Indians that lived there. As a compromise, Brigham Young was named governor of the new Utah territory. Most of the new territorial officials were Mormons, too. Four were not Mormon.

然而,国会只批准给他们很小一片地区,而且不能叫蜜蜂,而要叫犹他,因为印第安原住民的犹他部落曾经居住在那里。与此同时,国会也做出妥协,任命杨伯翰为新犹他地区的总督,当地大部分官员都是摩门教徒,只有四个人例外。

VOICE TWO:

Governing the territory would not be easy. There were disputes during the administrations of several American presidents. As a result of one dispute, the four non-Mormon officials returned to Washington. The Mormons then formed their own territorial government with a legislature and courts.

管理犹他并非易事。美国接连几届总统任职期间,都曾出现过争议,其中一次争议迫使四名非摩门教官员离开犹他,返回华盛顿。摩门教徒于是组建了自己的地方政府、议会和法院。

Other federal officials were sent to Utah. Some of them were not prepared for the job. Usually, they did not stay long.

后来又有联邦官员被派往犹他,但是很多人并未为在那里工作做好充分准备,往往待不了多长时间。

VOICE ONE:

Brigham Young
Brigham Young

Some of the officials made many charges against Brigham Young and other Mormon leaders. They said Mormons refused to recognize the power of the federal government. They said Mormons put the words of Young above the laws of Congress. They said the church had a secret organization to take the lives and property of those who questioned the power of the church.

非摩门教徒的官员很难在犹他久留。其中一些人指责杨伯翰等摩门教领导人拒绝承认联邦政府的权力。他们说,摩门教徒视杨伯翰的话高于国会法律。他们还说,摩门教会有一个秘密机构,对怀疑教会权力的人,一律处死并剥夺财产。

There were charges that Mormons had burned the papers of the Supreme Court of the territory. And there were charges that Mormons were responsible for Indian attacks on some officials.

有人指责摩门教徒焚毁了联邦最高法院有关犹他地区的法律文件;有人指责摩门教徒是印第安人袭击政府官员的幕后黑手。

President Franklin Pierce decided he should make someone else governor of Utah. The man he chose, however, did not want the job. Instead, he urged the president to let Brigham Young remain. President Pierce agreed.

皮尔斯总统决定撤换犹他总督。但他任命的人不愿意接受这份工作,主张让杨伯翰留任,皮尔斯也只好同意。

VOICE TWO:

Relations between the Mormons and the government did not improve in the next three years. Territorial officials resigned. They charged that the Mormons were in open rebellion against the federal government.

接下来三年里,摩门教徒和联邦政府的关系没有改善。一些地方官员宣布辞职,指责摩门教公然跟联邦政府对着干。

The next president, James Buchanan, dismissed Brigham Young as governor. He ordered more than one thousand soldiers to go to Utah to put down the rebellion. He also sent a new governor, Alfred Cumming, with the soldiers. The Mormons prepared to fight.

新总统布坎南解除了杨伯翰的总督职务,调遣一千多名士兵前往犹他,镇压暴乱。布坎南还派遣新总督艾尔弗雷德.卡明随军前往。摩门教徒也做好了战斗的准备。

A small group of Mormon men attacked and destroyed the army's supply wagons. They forced the soldiers to stop for the winter before reaching the Salt Lake Valley. The soldiers could do nothing until spring.

一小群摩门教徒袭击了政府军的供给车辆,迫使政府军在抵达盐湖地区前安营扎寨,准备过冬。

VOICE ONE:

James Buchanan
James Buchanan

In Washington, efforts were made to settle the dispute. A man named Thomas Kane asked President Buchanan to let him go to Utah. Kane was an old friend of the president. He also was a friend of the Mormons. He had spent much time with them during their long trip to Utah ten years earlier.

与此同时,在华盛顿,一个名叫托马斯.凯恩的人要求布坎南总统允许他到犹他去。凯恩是布坎南总统的老朋友,跟摩门教关系也很密切。十年前,摩门教徒长途跋涉前往犹他途中,他曾经跟他们一起度过了很长一段时间。

Kane feared what might happen to his Mormon friends if fighting started. He told President Buchanan that he did not want a job or money. He only wanted a chance to be useful. The president agreed to let him try to settle the dispute.

凯恩担心战斗打响会对他的摩门教朋友不利。他告诉布坎南总统说,他不想要职位,也不想要金钱,只想有一个出力的机会。布坎南同意给他一次机会,设法化解双方的纠纷。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Thomas Kane arrived in Salt Lake City, the territorial capital, early in eighteen fifty-eight. He found that the Mormons had decided not to fight. Instead, they were preparing to search for a new home. They talked of moving to Mexico or perhaps to an island in the South Pacific.

托马斯.凯恩1858年年初抵达犹他地区首府盐湖城。他发现,摩门教徒已经决定不使用武力对抗,而是起身去寻找一个新家,正考虑搬到墨西哥去,或是搬到南太平洋的一个岛屿上去。

Kane talked with Brigham Young. Then he went to the army camp to talk with Governor Cumming. The governor agreed to go to Salt Lake City with Kane. The two men went alone, without any soldiers.

凯恩见过杨伯翰后,又去军营找新总督卡明。卡明同意跟他一起去盐湖城,两人只身前往,没带一兵一卒。

VOICE ONE:

The Mormons welcomed Cumming, but continued their preparations to leave. Cumming called a public meeting.

摩门教徒对卡明来访表示欢迎,但同时继续为迁移做准备。卡明决定召集一次民众大会。

He said he was in Utah to represent the federal government. He said he was there to make sure the people of the territory obeyed the constitution and the laws of the United States. He said he would not use military force until every other way had failed.

卡明说,他代表联邦政府来到犹他,目的是保证当地居民遵守美国的宪法和法律,不到万不得已,他不会使用武力。

Above all, said Cumming, he would not interfere with the Mormon religion. He urged the Mormons not to leave the land they had worked so hard to build. Brigham Young agreed to stay.

卡明强调,他不干涉摩门教的宗教信仰,他敦促摩门教徒不要离开自己耕耘多年的土地。杨伯翰同意留下来。

VOICE TWO:

Governor Cumming returned to the army camp. He told the commander that the Mormons had accepted him. He said military force would not be needed. A few days later, two representatives of President Buchanan arrived. They brought news that the president would not act against Mormons who accepted the rule of the United States government.

卡明总督返回军营,告诉军事指挥官说,他已经被摩门教徒所接受,不再需要武力镇压。几天过后,布坎南总统的两名特使抵达,传达总统的意思,只要摩门教徒接受美国政府的法律,就不对摩门教徒采取军事行动。

Brigham Young and the other Mormon leaders made a statement. They said they wished to live in peace under the Constitution and the laws of the United States. The dispute was over. Brigham Young continued to lead the Mormon church. But the governor ruled the territorial government. The two jobs were separate and would remain that way.

杨伯翰等摩门教领袖发表声明,表示愿意在美国宪法和法律的框架下和平生活,这就意味着争议的终结。杨伯翰继续领导摩门教会,总督负责地方政府,二者互不相干,直到今天。

VOICE ONE:

Congressional elections were held in the United States in eighteen fifty-eight. One political race created national interest. It was for one of the two Senate seats representing the state of Illinois. The candidate of the Democratic Party was Stephen Douglas. He was running for re-election. His opponent was a lawyer and member of the Republican Party. His name was Abraham Lincoln.

1858年美国举行国会选举。其中,伊利诺伊州两个参议员席位中一个席位的选举引起了全国关注。民主党候选人史蒂文.道格拉斯准备参选连任,挑战者是共和党籍的律师亚伯拉罕.林肯。

That will be our story next time.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Sarah Long and Richard Rael. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #87 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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