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#95: Lincoln Names a Cabinet

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Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

By February first, eighteen sixty-one, seven southern states had withdrawn from the United States of America. They created their own independent nation -- the Confederate States of America. The South seceded because Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, had been elected president. Southerners believed he would support a constitutional ban on slavery. They were afraid their way of life would soon end.

截止到1861年2月1号,南方先后已经有七个州退出联邦。他们成立了自己的独立共和国,取名美国南方邦联。南方这些州之所以决定退出联邦,是因为共和党人林肯当选总统。南方人相信,林肯一定会支持修改宪法,全面取缔奴隶制度。他们担心,自己的生活方式岌岌可危。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe discuss the beginning of Abraham Lincoln's presidency.

VOICE ONE:

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

President-elect Lincoln traveled by train from his home in Illinois to Washington, D.C. Along the way, he stopped to make speeches. As he got closer to Washington, he was warned that a mob was planning to attack the train. He had to continue his trip in secret.

当选总统林肯离开家乡伊利诺伊,坐火车前往华盛顿走马上任。他沿途多次发表讲话。快到华盛顿的时候,林肯听到消息,说有暴民准备袭击他坐的列车,林肯被迫秘密走完了剩下的旅程。

Lincoln arrived in Washington nine days before his inauguration. It was a busy time. He talked with many people, including delegates to a peace convention. Every state was represented at the convention, except the states that had seceded. The delegates urged Lincoln to support slavery. They urged him not to go to war over the issue.

就职典礼九天前,林肯抵达华盛顿。那是一段繁忙的日子。林肯要跟很多人谈话,包括一些参加和平大会的代表。这次和平大会,除了退出联邦的各州外,都派了代表参加。代表们要求林肯支持蓄奴,不要因为奴隶问题而发动战争。

Lincoln said only that he would faithfully execute the duties of President of all the United States. He said he would protect and defend the American Constitution.

林肯只保证,他会忠实执行作为美国总统应尽的责任,捍卫美国宪法。

VOICE TWO:

Lincoln, fourth from left, with cabinet members Montgomery Blair, Caleb Smith, Salmon Chase, William Seward, Simon Cameron, Edward Bates and Gideon Wells
Lincoln, fourth from left, with cabinet members Montgomery Blair, Caleb Smith, Salmon Chase, William Seward, Simon Cameron, Edward Bates and Gideon Wells

While Lincoln waited for inauguration day, he chose the members of his cabinet. He wanted men representing all opposing groups in the Republican Party. He hoped this would unite the party and give him support in the difficult years ahead.

林肯等待宣誓就职期间,挑选了内阁成员。他希望共和党内部的所有派系在内阁里都有代表。林肯觉得,这么做能让共和党团结一致,帮助他渡过日后的难关。

Lincoln chose William Seward as secretary of state, Salmon Chase as Treasury secretary, Gideon Welles as Navy secretary and Montgomery Blair as postmaster general.

林肯选择威廉·西沃德担任国务卿,选择萨蒙·蔡斯担任财政部长,选择吉迪恩·韦尔斯担任海军部长,选择布莱尔担任邮政总局局长。

Seward did not like Chase, Welles or Blair. He told Lincoln that he could not serve in the cabinet with them. He said they would never be able to work together. Lincoln answered that he would be happy to make Seward ambassador to Britain, instead of secretary of state. Seward gave up the argument and agreed to join the cabinet.

西沃德不喜欢其他三个人,表示没法跟他们共事。林肯表示,如果西沃德不愿意当国务卿,可以担任美国驻英大使。西沃德最后还是同意加入内阁。

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln and Buchanan entering the Senate chamber before the inauguration
Lincoln and Buchanan entering the Senate chamber before the inauguration

Inauguration Day was the fourth of March. President-elect Lincoln rode to the ceremony with outgoing President James Buchanan. Buchanan was ready to give up his power. He told Lincoln: "If you are as happy to get into the White House as I am to get out of it, you must be the happiest man alive!"

3月4号总统就职。当选总统林肯跟即将卸任的总统布坎南一起坐马车参加就职典礼。布坎南告诉林肯说,如果你就职的心情跟我离任的心情一样愉快的话,那你一定是世界上最快乐的人。

The inaugural ceremony took place outside the Capitol building. Lincoln was to give his inaugural speech before being sworn-in.

就职典礼在国会大厦外举行。宣誓前,林肯发表就职演说。

He had worked hard on the speech. He wanted to say clearly what his policy would be on slavery and secession. These were the issues which divided the country. These were the issues which were leading the country to civil war.

林肯的就职演说经过了精心准备,他希望说明自己在奴隶和脱离联邦这两大问题上的立场,因为这些是造成国家分裂、走向内战的问题。

This is what Lincoln said:

VOICE TWO:

"There seems to be some fear among the people of the southern states, that because a Republican administration is coming to power, their property and their peace and personal security are threatened. There has never been any reasonable cause for such fears. In fact, much evidence to the contrary has existed, open to their inspection. It is found in nearly all my published speeches.

林肯说:“南方各州的人民似乎担心,共和党政府上任,会让他们的财产、他们的平静和个人安全受到威胁。这种担心是毫无根据的。事实恰恰相反,证据就摆在那里,我发表的所有讲话里都有,大家可以随便去看。”

"In one of those speeches, I declared that I had no purpose -- directly or indirectly -- to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists. I said I believed I had no legal right to do so, and no wish to do so. This statement is still true. I can only say that the property, peace, and security of no part of the country are to be in any way endangered by the incoming administration."

林肯说:“我在其中一次讲话中曾经说过,我根本不打算直接或是间接地插手现存的蓄奴制度,我觉得,根据法律,我无权这样做,也不想这样做。我的这一立场没有变。这个国家任何一个地方居民的财产、和平与安全都不会因为政府换届而受到任何形式的威胁。”

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln noted that seventy-two years had passed since the first president was inaugurated. Since then, he said, fifteen men had led the nation through many dangers, generally with great success. He went on:

林肯指出,自从72年前美国建国第一位总统宣誓就职以来,已经有15位总统带领这个国家成功地走过了风风雨雨。

VOICE TWO:

A page of President Lincoln's inaugural speech
A page of President Lincoln's inaugural speech

"I now begin the same job under great difficulty. The breaking up of the federal Union -- before, only threatened -- now, is attempted. I believe that under universal law and the Constitution, the Union of these states is permanent. This is shown by the history of the Union itself.

他说,“我即将在目前的艰难条件下就任美国总统。以前,退出联邦的威胁只是说说而已,但如今已经落实到了行动上。我认为,根据宪法和法律,各州间形成的联盟是永恒的,联邦自身的历史就可以证明这一点。”。

"The Union is much older than the Constitution. It was formed, in fact, by the Articles of Association in seventeen seventy-four. It was continued by the Declaration of Independence in seventeen seventy-six. It grew further under the Articles of Confederation in seventeen seventy-eight. And finally, in seventeen eighty-seven, one of the declared reasons for establishing the Constitution of the United States was to form 'a more perfect Union'.

美国联邦的历史比宪法还要久远,早在1774年就已经根据《联盟条例》出现了,后来又根据1776年的《独立宣言》得到延续。1778年的《联邦条例》使联邦进一步得到巩固,直到1787年,制定美国宪法的理由之一就是要建立‘一个完美的联邦’。

"I therefore believe that, in view of the Constitution and the laws, the Union is not broken. I shall make sure, as the Constitution orders me to do, that the laws of the Union are obeyed in all the states. In doing this, there needs to be no bloodshed or violence. And there shall be none, unless it be forced upon the national government.

他说,“我因此相信,根据宪法和法律,联邦并未分裂。我要执行宪法给我的命令,确保联邦法律得到所有州的遵守,要做到这一点,无须流血和暴力,除非有人将流血和暴力强加给联邦政府。”

"The power given to me will be used to hold, occupy, and possess the property and places belonging to the government, and to collect the taxes. But beyond what is necessary for these purposes, there will be no invasion, no using of force against or among the people anywhere."

林肯说,“根据宪法赋予我的权力,我要掌握、控制、占有一切属于联邦政府的财产和领地,并收取税赋。但是除了为达到上述目的而采取的必要手段外,政府不会入侵任何地方,或是对任何人使用暴力。”

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln then repeated some statements he had made during his campaign for president. He used them to explain the differences between North and South.

林肯还重申了他在竞选期间发表的一些声明,解释南方和北方之间的分歧。

One part of the country, he said, believes slavery is right and should be extended. The other part believes slavery is wrong and should not be extended. This, he said, was the only important dispute.

他说,我们这个国家的一部分地区认为奴隶制度是正确的,应该推广,另一部分地区认为奴隶制度是错误的,不应该推广,这是唯一的重大分歧。

Lincoln admitted that, even if the dispute could be settled peacefully, there were those who wanted to see the Union destroyed. He said his words were not meant for them. They were meant only for those people who really loved the Union. He said:

林肯承认,即使这一分歧能够得到和平解决,还是会有人希望看到联邦解体。他说,他的话不是说给这些人听的,而是说给那些真正热爱联邦的人听的。他说,

VOICE TWO:

"Physically speaking, we cannot separate. We cannot remove our sections from each other nor build an impassable wall between them. A husband and wife may be divorced and go away from or out of the reach of each other. But the different parts of our country cannot do this. They must remain face to face. And relations -- friendly or hostile -- must continue between them.

“从地缘角度出发,我们不能分裂,不能各自搬走,在中间修建一面无法逾越的墙壁。夫妻可以离异,可以互不往来,但是我们国家的不同地区不能这样做。他们必须彼此面对,不管是和睦还是敌对,都要继续来往下去。”

"Is it possible to make those relations better after separation than before. Can aliens make treaties easier than friends can make laws. Can treaties be more faithfully enforced between aliens than laws can be enforced among friends.

林肯反问:“分裂能让双方的关系得到改善吗?陌生人谈判达成协议比朋友协商制定法律要容易吗?陌生人间协议的落实要比朋友间法律的落实更轻而易举吗?”

"My countrymen -- one and all -- think calmly and well upon this subject. Nothing valuable can be lost by taking time.

林肯说,“同胞们,让我们所有人都冷静地仔细思考这个问题,多用一点时间去充分考虑一下是不会有重大损失的。”

"In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen -- and not in mine -- is the great issue of civil war. The government will not attack you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.

林肯还说,“内战的决定权在你们这些对现状不满的同胞手里,不在我手里。政府是不会向你们发起攻击的。如果你们不主动出击,就不会发生冲突。”

"We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though emotion may have damaged them, it must not break our ties of love."

我们不是敌人,是朋友。我们不能成为敌人,我们之间爱的纽带虽然可能受到感情的伤害,但是绝不会切断。

VOICE ONE:

The 1861 inaugural Bible
The 1861 inaugural Bible

Abraham Lincoln then placed his hand on the Christian holy book, the Bible. The Chief Justice of the United States then spoke the presidential oath. Lincoln repeated the words. And the United States had a new president.

林肯随即把手放在圣经上,并在美国联邦最高法院首席大法官的领诵下,宣誓就职,成为美国新总统。

Lincoln's first crisis came quickly. It was a problem left unsolved by the out-going president. Lincoln had to decide immediately what to do about the federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina: Fort Sumter. The fort was surrounded by southern artillery. Southern gunboats guarded the harbor. The federal troops inside Fort Sumter were getting dangerously low on food. But any attempt to send more men or supplies would be seen as an act of war -- civil war.

林肯刚刚走马上任,就要解决一场棘手的危机,决定如何处理南卡罗来纳州查尔斯顿港附近联邦政府所属的萨姆特堡。萨姆特堡被南方炮兵包围,南方炮舰守卫着港口。萨姆特城堡里驻扎的联邦部队口粮越来越少,但是任何向萨姆特堡运送人员和物资的行动都会被看成是战争行为,意味着内战的爆发。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #95 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:Alumni
Lincoln took his office after the inaugural speech . the united states were faced with bitter crisis of secession of the seven southern states. although Lincoln had declared that the govrnment would not use force to the pro-slavery southern states, the secession of the southern states had become a fact. one urgent thing laid befor the Lincoln. he must take mesaure to rescue the navies in the port of fort sumter which was surrounded by southern armed forecs-- artillary.
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