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#97: The Civil War Begins 第97集 - 美国内战打响

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Just before sunrise on April twelfth, eighteen sixty-one, the first shot was fired in the American Civil War. A heavy mortar roared, sending a shell high over the harbor at Charleston, South Carolina. The shell dropped and exploded above Fort Sumter, a United States military base on an island in the harbor.

1861年4月12号拂晓,美国南北战争打响了。一枚炮弹呼啸着飞过南卡罗来纳查尔斯顿港的天空,在位于查尔斯顿一个岛上的美国联邦军事基地萨姆特堡的上空爆炸。

The explosion was a signal for all Confederate guns surrounding the fort to open fire. Shell after shell smashed into the fort. The booming of the cannons woke the people of Charleston. They rushed to the harbor and cheered as the bursting shells lighted the dark sky.

这一炮是开战的信号,查尔斯顿港口周围的所有南方邦联炮舰纷纷投入战斗,炮弹像雨点般飞向萨姆特堡。隆隆的炮声惊醒了查尔斯顿睡梦中的居民,他们飞奔到港口,看着呼啸的炮弹划破夜空,欢呼雀跃。

This week in our series, Jack Moyles and Stuart Spencer tell about the attack on Fort Sumter.

VOICE ONE:

The shelling of Fort Sumter
The shelling of Fort Sumter

Confederate leaders ordered the attack after President Abraham Lincoln refused to withdraw the small force of American soldiers at Sumter. Food supplies at the fort were very low. And southerners expected hunger would force the soldiers to leave. But Lincoln announced he was sending a ship to Fort Sumter with food.

当时,萨姆特堡里驻扎着一小批联邦士兵。城堡里的给养日益短缺。南方人本想等饥肠辘辘的困兵自己出来,但是林肯宣布,要向城堡运送粮食补给,南方邦联领导人因此下令攻打城堡。

Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered his commander in Charleston, General [Pierre] Beauregard, to destroy the fort before the food could arrive.

南方邦联总统戴维斯命令驻扎在查尔斯顿的邦联军事指挥官包瑞德,在粮食补给到达前摧毁萨姆特堡。

VOICE TWO:

The attack started from Fort Johnson across the harbor from Sumter. A Virginia congressman, Roger Pryor, was visiting Fort Johnson when the order to fire was given. The fort's commander asked Pryor if he would like the honor of firing the mortar that would begin the attack. "No," answered Pryor, and his voice shook. "I cannot fire the first gun of the war."

南北战争的第一炮是在萨姆特堡对岸的约翰逊堡打响的。当时,维吉尼亚州国会议员普赖尔正在那里视察。约翰逊堡的指挥官问普赖尔要不要点燃第一炮,普赖尔回答说,“不。我不能点燃战争的第一炮。”他讲话的声音有些颤抖。

But others could. And the attack began.

然而,他不愿意,别人愿意。美国的南北战争打响了。

VOICE ONE:

At Fort Sumter, Major Robert Anderson and his men waited three hours before firing back at the Confederate guns.

在萨姆特堡里,安德森少校和他的手下等了足足三个小时才开始还击。

Anderson could not use his most powerful cannons. They were in the open at the top of the fort, where there was no protection for the gunners. Too many of his small force would be lost if he tried to fire these guns.

他们火力最猛烈的大炮都在城堡顶上的露天里,炮手安全得不到保护,会造成严重的人员伤亡。

So Anderson had his men fire the smaller cannon from better-protected positions. These, however, did not do much damage to the Confederate guns.

安德森少校只好求其次,使用位置相对安全的小型火炮,但是火力太小,无法对南方邦联的炮火造成任何威胁。

VOICE TWO:

Confederate guns fire on Fort Sumter
Confederate guns fire on Fort Sumter

The shelling continued all day. A big cloud of smoke rose high in the air over Fort Sumter.

炮火整整持续了一天,萨姆特堡上空被一层厚厚的烟雾所笼罩。

The smoke was seen by United States navy ships a few miles outside Charleston Harbor. They had come with the ship bringing food for the men at Sumter. There were soldiers on these ships. But they could not reach the fort to help Major Anderson. Confederate boats blocked the entrance to the harbor. And confederate guns could destroy any ship that tried to enter.

当时,联邦运粮船已经到了查尔斯顿港外几里处,能看到萨姆特堡上空的烟雾。运粮船上虽然有联邦士兵,但是他们进不了萨姆特堡,帮不上忙,南方邦联的船只封锁了港口,要想强行入港,就会遭到炮轰。

The commander of the naval force, Captain [Gustavus] Fox, had hoped to move the soldiers to Sumter in small boats. But the sea was so rough that the small boats could not be used. Fox could only watch and hope for calmer seas.

运粮船上的联邦指挥官是海军上尉福克斯。他本想用小船把士兵送进萨姆特堡,但是迫于风浪太大,只好耐心等待。

VOICE ONE:

Confederate shells continued to smash into Sumter throughout the night and into the morning of the second day. The fires at Fort Sumter burned higher. And smoke filled the rooms where soldiers still tried to fire their cannons.

南方邦联的炮火一夜没停,第二天早上还在继续。萨姆特堡四处起火,连炮兵所在的房间里也是烟雾弥漫。

About noon, three men arrived at the fort in a small boat. One of them was Louis Wigfall, a former United States senator from Texas, now a Confederate officer. He asked to see Major Anderson.

中午时分,南方邦联的三个代表坐小船来到萨姆特堡,其中一个是路易斯·威格法尔。他原来是德克萨斯的联邦参议员,如今已经成了南方邦联官员。他要求会见安德森少校。

"I come from General Beauregard," he said. "It is time to put a stop to this, sir. The flames are raging all around you. And you have defended your flag bravely. Will you leave, sir?" Wigfall asked.

威格法尔告诉安德森说,“我代表包瑞德将军告诉你,现在是结束这一切的时候了。你的周围都是熊熊烈火,你已经勇敢地捍卫了美国国旗,你现在愿意离开吗?”

VOICE TWO:

The wreckage of Fort Sumter
The wreckage of Fort Sumter

Major Anderson was ready to stop fighting. His men had done all that could be expected of them. They had fought well against a much stronger enemy. Anderson said he would surrender, if he and his men could leave with honor.

安德森少校也想就此罢手。他的手下已经尽了全力,面对比自己强大得多的对手顽强抵抗。安德森说,如果他的部下能够体面地离开,他就愿意投降。

Wigfall agreed. He told Anderson to lower his flag and the firing would stop.

威格法尔表示同意,并告诉安德森说,降下联邦旗帜,炮火就会停息。

Down came the United States flag. And up went the white flag of surrender. The battle of Fort Sumter was over.

安德森下令降下联邦国旗,换上投降的白旗。萨姆特堡战役最后以联邦守军投降而告终。

More than four-thousand shells had been fired during the thirty-three hours of fighting. But no one on either side was killed. One United States soldier, however, was killed the next day when a cannon exploded as Anderson's men prepared to leave the fort.

这场战役持续33小时,一共发射了四千多枚炮弹,但是双方没有人员伤亡。反而是第二天联邦守军准备离开城堡时,有一枚炸弹爆炸,炸死了一个联邦士兵。

VOICE ONE:

The news of Anderson's surrender reached Washington late Saturday, April thirteenth. President Lincoln and his cabinet met the next day and wrote a declaration that the president would announce on Monday.

4月13号星期六晚上,安德森少校率兵投降的消息传到了首都华盛顿。林肯第二天召集内阁开会,撰写了一份宣言,准备星期一由林肯宣读。

In it, Lincoln said powerful forces had seized control in seven states of the South. He said these forces were too strong to be stopped by courts or policemen. Lincoln said troops were needed. He requested that the states send him seventy-five thousand soldiers. He said these men would be used to get control of forts and other federal property seized from the Union.

宣言里说,强大的武装部队占领了南方的七个州,依靠法院和警察的力量,已经无法阻止他们,所以需要征兵。林肯要求各州派兵,组织一支七万五千人的部队,任务是夺回联邦政府对军事城堡和联邦财产的控制权。

VOICE TWO:

Stephen Douglas
Stephen Douglas

Lincoln knew he had the support of his own party. He also wanted northern Democrats to give him full support. So, Sunday evening, a Republican congressman visited the top Democrat of the North, Senator Stephen Douglas.

林肯知道自己所在的共和党一定会支持他。他还希望得到北方民主党人的全力支持。为此,共和党国会议员阿什姆星期天晚上前去拜访北方最有威信的民主党参议员史蒂文·道格拉斯。

The congressman urged Douglas to go to the White House and tell Lincoln that he would do all he could to help put down the rebellion in the south. At first, Douglas refused. He said Lincoln had removed Democrats -- friends of his -- from government jobs and had given the jobs to Republicans. Douglas said he didn't like this. Anyway, he said, Lincoln probably did not want his advice.

阿什姆敦促道格拉斯到白宫去,告诉林肯,他愿意不遗余力,协助镇压南方反叛。道格拉斯起初不愿意,说林肯上台后把他的民主党朋友都赶出了政府,换成共和党人。道格拉斯说,他很不高兴,况且,林肯八成并不想听他的意见。

The congressman, George Ashmun, urged Douglas to forget party politics. He said Lincoln and the country needed the Senator's help. Douglas finally agreed to talk with Lincoln. He and Ashmun went immediately to the White House.

阿什姆敦促道格拉斯抛开政党政治,并表示,林肯和国家都需要道格拉斯的帮助。道格拉斯最后同意去见林肯,随阿什姆立即动身前往白宫。

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln welcomed his old political opponent. He explained his plans and read to Douglas the declaration he would announce the next day.

林肯对这位老政敌表示欢迎,向道格拉斯解释了自己的计划,还让道格拉斯看了第二天准备宣读的宣言。

Douglas said he agreed with every word of it except, he said, seventy-five thousand soldiers would not be enough. Remembering his problems with southern extremists, he urged Lincoln to ask for two-hundred thousand men. He told the president, "You do not know the dishonest purposes of those men as well as I do."

道格拉斯看过后,表示举双手赞成,但指出,七万五千人绝对不够。道格拉斯回想起他以前跟南方极端主义者打交道时的经验,建议林肯征集一支20万人的部队。他警告林肯说,“对这些人卑鄙的目的,你不如我清楚。”

Lincoln and Douglas talked for two hours. Then the Senator gave a statement for the newspapers. He said he still opposed the administration on political questions. But, he said, he completely supported Lincoln's efforts to protect the Union.

林肯和道格拉斯交谈了两个小时。道格拉斯参议员后来通过报纸发表声明说,在政治问题上,他依旧反对林肯政府的立场,但是在保护联邦完整的问题上,他毫无保留地支持林肯。

Douglas was to live for only a few more months. He spent this time working for the Union. He traveled through the states of the northwest, making many speeches. Douglas urged Democrats everywhere to support the Republican government. He told them, "There can be no neutrals in this war -- only patriots or traitors."

道格拉斯把自己人生最后几个月全部贡献给了联邦,在西北各州奔波,发表讲话。道格拉斯敦促各地民主党人支持共和党政府,并告诉他们说,“这场战争里没有中立方,只有爱国者和叛国者”。

VOICE TWO:

Throughout the north, thousands of men rushed to answer Lincoln's call for troops. Within two days, a military group from Boston left for Washington. Other groups formed quickly in northern cities and began training for war.

美国北方人纷纷响应林肯的号召,短短两天内,波士顿的队伍就启程赶往华盛顿,北方其它城市的部队也迅速组建起来,投入备战训练。

Lincoln received a different answer, however, from the border states between North and South.

但是南北交界地区各州的反应却完全不同。

Virginia's governor said he would not send troops to help the North get control of the South. North Carolina's governor said the request violated the Constitution. He would have no part of it. Tennessee said it would not send one man to help force southern states back into the Union. But it said it would send fifty thousand troops to defend southern rights.

维吉尼亚州长说,他不会派兵帮助北方控制南方。北卡罗来纳州州长说,林肯的要求违反了宪法,他不会参与。田纳西州表示,他们不会派一兵一卒,强迫南方各州重返联邦,但是愿意派五万人,保护南方的权利。

Lincoln got the same answer from the governors of Kentucky, Arkansas, and Missouri. For several days, it seemed that all these states would secede and join the southern confederacy.

林肯从肯塔基、阿肯色和密苏里州那里得到了类似的答复。当时看来,这些州似乎更有可能脱离联邦,加入南方邦联。

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln worried most about Virginia, the powerful state just across the Potomac River from Washington. A secession convention already was meeting at the state capital. On April seventeenth, the convention voted to take Virginia out of the Union.

最让林肯担心的,还是波托马克河对岸的维吉尼亚州。4月17号,维吉尼亚州在首府召开大会,投票决定脱离联邦。

Virginia's vote to secede forced an American army officer to make a most difficult decision. The officer was Colonel Robert E. Lee, a citizen of Virginia.

投票结果让美军指挥官罗伯特·李将军左右为难,因为他是维吉尼亚居民。

The army's top commander, General Winfield Scott, had called Lee to Washington. Scott believed Lee was the best officer in the army. Lincoln agreed. He asked Lee to take General Scott's job, to become the army chief.

当时美军最高将领斯科特将军把罗伯特·李叫到华盛顿,斯科特认为罗伯特·李是最出色的将领。林肯也同意,他让罗伯特·李接任斯科特的职务。

Lee was offered the job on the same day that Virginia left the Union. He felt strong ties to his state. But he also loved the Union.

罗伯特·李得到通知的同一天,维吉尼亚州投票决定脱离联邦。罗伯特·李既放不下自己的州,又热爱美国联邦。他会做出什么样的选择?

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Jack Moyles and Stuart Spencer. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts are online, along with historical pictures, at www.unsv.com. You can also follow our programs at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #97 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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作者:朱宏文
General Ulysess Grant, volunteered at first, led forty thousand men fought against the southern force at Tennesee. won. War is not in practice to capture the all area of the enemy but size the main fort which menas the whole warfare. then it encourages the spirits of the fighters and to all the people of the nation from whom they agian get the great encourages and aids till winning the complete victory.
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