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House's Impeachment Inquiry; Economic Indicators; Standard Time Switch

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CARL AZUZ, CNN ANCHOR: Welcome to CNN 10, your source for down the middle explanations of news events. I'm Carl Azuz at the CNN Center. Hope you had a great weekend. We're getting started with a look at a recent vote in the U.S. House of Representatives concerning President Donald Trump and the issue of impeachment. Late last week, the House voted 232 to 196 to formalize its impeachment inquiry of the president. This was not a vote to impeach President Trump or to formally put him on trial.

This was a vote to make an investigation official to establish the rules for how it will be carried out and according to Democratic House Speaker

Nancy Pelosi it was a vote to help lawmakers decide whether to eventually impeach the president. It went mostly along party lines. Democrats control the House of Representatives.

They hold the majority of seats there and all but two of them voted to move forward with the investigation. The remaining two Democrats joined all

House Republicans in voting against having a formal investigation. This is happening because of a controversial phone call that President Trump had in late July with the president of Ukraine.

We explained that call in our September 26th show and you can find it in our archives at CNN10.com. Speaker Pelosi says House Democrats have no choice but to investigate President Trump because they quote "took an oath to protect and defend our democracy and that is what he has made an assault on". The president says he's done nothing wrong and House Republican Leader Kevin McCarthy said last weeks vote shows there's only bipartisan opposition to the inquiry not in favor of it.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Well what's next for the impeachment process? The Democrats who run the House of Representatives may decide, you know,

there's just not enough here for the House Judiciary Committee to vote Articles of Impeachment and they'll just close the investigation. Another possibility is that the House Judiciary Committee does vote Articles of Impeachment and then the full House will have to vote on whether Donald

Trump will be impeached.

Now if there is a majority in support of impeachment, Donald Trump doesn't lose his office. That's like a formal charge. It's like an indictment.

So if Donald Trump is indicted the way Bill Clinton was impeached then the case will go the United States Senate. There has to be a trial presided over by John Roberts, the Chief Justice of the United States and after that trial the Senate will have to vote on whether to convict Donald Trump.

It takes two thirds, 67 votes in the Senate to remove a president from office. I think most people believe at the end of the day, there is almost no chance that Donald Trump will be convicted in the Senate. So the question that is on everyone's minds is what will the effect of this whole impeachment process be on the 2020 election.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

AZUZ: 10 Second Trivia. Which of these U.S. government agencies is the oldest? U.S. Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of

Transportation or Food and Drug Administration. The Bureau of Labor was established in 1884 making it the oldest agency on this list.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics releases its employment situation summary on the first Friday of every month. It's also called the jobs report which is easier to say and it gives a snapshot of how the U.S. economy did the month before. So the latest report says in October, American employers added

128,000 jobs.

That was better than economists expected. They predicted an 89,000 job gain and part of the reason for that was the recent strike at General

Motors. It officially ended late in October but it had taken 46,000 auto employees out of the workforce and economists had thought it was going to be a bigger drag on the jobs market than it ended up being.

The unemployment rate, which is a percentage of American workers who want but don't have a job increased to 3.6 percent. It was 3.5 percent the month before but analysts say there's a silver lining to that because it showed more Americans were looking for work. One area of concern was in manufacturing. The October jobs report says there were 36,000 jobs lost in that sector and the BLS commissioner says that was impacted by the auto workers strike. But this doesn't necessarily signal that a recession is on the way.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's the dreaded "r" word, recession. Now technically recession is defined as two straight quarters of negative economic growth but ironically the National Bureau of Economic Research which officially dates U.S. recessions doesn't quite agree. It defines recession as a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy lasting more than a few months. The NBR doesn't just look at GDP but other factors too like income, employment and industrial production.

But notice how it says spread across the economy, that's important. Why? Because recessions can happen in one sector but without dragging the whole economy down. We saw that in 2015 and 2016 for example too. That was when manufacturing fell into a recession but the rest of the U.S. economy did not. The big question today is will history repeat itself and why we're asking that question is because U.S. manufacturing is once again back in technical recession. But here's the key, although manufacturing isn't doing well it's only a small share of the U.S. economy.

We're talking 11 percent. The modern American economy is driven by other things like consumers and services and that represents around 70 percent economic activity. The danger though is that weakness in manufacturing could then spill over into that bigger driver of the economy and that's the thing about recessions.

They do have a tendency to be self-fulfilling. If American's start worrying about the economy and hearing about layoffs for examples at factories, they may decide to spend a bit less. Perhaps they delay bigger purchases and that's when a fear of an economic downturn can actually bring on a real one and bringing the dreaded "r" word firmly back into play.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

AZUZ: Most of America has fallen back to Standard Time. That's what we call it when we're not on Daylight Saving Time but when you think about the fact that we spend most of the year on Daylight Saving Time, Standard is hardly the standard. Still, our current standard was set on Sunday morning. It will last until March 8th and despite what my colleague Jennifer Gray is about to tell you, you only get the extra hour of sleep if you go to bed on time the night of the switch. Those who stay up an hour later on Saturday may still seem sleepy on Sunday.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

JENNIFER GRAY, CNN METEOROLOGIST: So why do we change the clocks ahead one hour in the spring and back one hour in the fall? Well it's actually to reduce the electricity consumption by extending the daylight hours. In the U.S. we change our clocks at 2 a.m. on the second Sunday in March, that begins Daylight Saving Time. That's when we spring ahead. On the first Sunday in November, we change our clocks at 2 a.m. again. That's actually just going back to Standard Time.

Believe it or not, this started with an idea from Benjamin Franklin. Franklin did write an essay suggesting that people could use less candles if they got up early and made better use of daylight. In 1918 the Standard Time Act established time zones and Daylight Saving Time but not all states participate. To this day, most of Arizona and all of Hawaii do not change their clocks. Over 70 countries across the world observe Daylight Saving

Time with notable exceptions of China and Japan.

In 2007 we actually changed the date of when we set our clocks back an hour to the first week in November. This helped protect trick-or-treaters by giving them an extra hour of daylight. One of the other lines of thinking was that we'd have a better voter turnout on election years. Experts say each time you change your clocks, it's always a good idea to change those batteries in your smoke detector and always look forward to fall when you get that extra hour of sleep.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

AZUZ: Mom didn't have to tell me not to play baseball inside because, well smash. That's the very same reason why this seems like it might not be the best idea. But it's not like you could just step outside to play on the International Space Station and the ball travels farther in microgravity.

So if astronauts Jessica Meir, Christina Koch and Andrew Morgan can't attend the World Series, maybe they can just very carefully see how this plays out.

Of course, if they're all Astros fans the real thing wouldn't have been a "Washing-ton" of fun for them but who needs baseball when you've got

"Spaceball". Who need to knock one out of the park when you're already out of the atmosphere. Without gravity there are no infield flies, no sinkers,

no grounders yet every game is an out of this "World Series". I'm Carl Azuz for CNN.

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