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第4册 - Unit 9, Section A - Does Mickey Mouse have a beard?

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Does this mean that French men seeking work with the Disney organization must shave off their moustaches too?

It depends.

A labor inspector took the Disney organization to court this week, contending that the company's dress and appearance code - which bans moustaches, beards, excess weight, short skirts and fancy stockings - offends individual liberty and violates French labor law.

The case is an illustration of some of the delicate cultural issues the company faces as it gets ready to open its theme park 20 miles (32 kilometers) east of Paris in five months' time.

The Disney management, which is assembling what it calls a 'cast' of 12,000 to run the theme park, argues that all employees, from bottle washers to the president, are similar to actors who have to obey rules about appearance. Anyway, a company spokesman says, no one has yet put his moustache before a job. As one new 'cast member' put it: 'You must believe in what you are doing, or you would have a terrible time here.'

But what do people think of Euro Disney? People everywhere are wondering whether Europeans would like the American recreation.

For all its concern about foreign cultural invasion and its defense against the pollution of the French language by English words, France's Socialist government has been untroubled about putting such a huge American symbol on the doorstep of the capital and has been more concerned about its social effect. It made an extraordinary series of tax and financial concessions to attract the theme park here rather than let it go to sunny Spain.

The theme park itself will be only part of a giant complex of housing, office, and resort developments stretching far into the next century, including movie and television production facilities. As part of its deal with the Disney organization, the government is laying on and paying for new highways, an extension of Paris's regional express railway and even a direct connection for the high speed TGV railway to the Channel Tunnel. The TGV station is being built in front of the main entrance of Euro Disneyland, and is scheduled to come into service in 1994.

If Euro Disneyland succeeds - where theme parks already in France have so far failed - a second and even a third park is likely to be built by the end of the century. Financial experts say that Euro Disneyland, the first phase of which is costing an estimated $3.6 billion, is essential to Disney's overall fortunes, which have been hit by competition and declining attendance in the United States.

French intellectuals have not found many kind things to say about the project. The kids, however, will probably never notice. Sleeping Beauty, Snow White, Peter Pan, and Pinocchio all come from European fairy tales or stories and are as familiar to children here as they are in the United States. To a French child Mickey is French. To an Italian kid he is Italian.

The Disney management is stressing this tradition in an apparent response to suggestions that it is culturally insensitive. Although the concept of the theme park is closely based on the original Magic Kingdom in California and Walt Disney World in Florida, 'Euro Disneyland will be unique in a manner appropriate to its European home,' the company says. 'The legends and fairy tales which come from Europe figure prominently in the creative development of the theme park.' Officials point out, for example, that Sleeping Beauty's castle, the central feature of the theme park, is based not on Hollywood, as some might think, but on the illustrations in a medieval European book. Also, a 360-degree movie, based on the adventures of Jules Verne, features well-known European actors.

Asked to describe other aspects of the effort to make the park more European, a spokesman mentioned that direction signs in the theme park will be in French as well as English, and that some performers will chat in French, Spanish and English. 'The challenge is telling things people already know - and at the same time making it different,' the spokesman said.

On the other hand, this effort is not being taken too far. Another Disney spokesman said earlier that the aim of the theme park is to provide a basically American experience for those who seek it. In this way, he said, people who might otherwise have contemplated a vacation in the United States will be happy to stay on this side of the Atlantic.

The Disney organization does seem to focus a bit too much on hair. 'Main Street, USA', the heart of Euro Disneyland, it promises, will feature an old time 'Harmony Barber Shop' to deal with 'messy hair and hairy chins' - and perhaps even offending mustaches. One difference from California or Florida: Parts of Main Street and waiting areas to get into the attractions will be covered over as a concession to Paris's rainy weather.

Euro Disneyland's short distance to Paris is a definite attraction. Anyone tiring of American or fake European culture can reach the Louvre art museum by express railway in less than an hour - from Minnie Mouse to Mona Lisa in a flash.

Communications figured largely in the Disney organization's decision to site its fourth theme park near Paris. The site is within a two-hour flight of 320 million Europeans. The opening of Eastern Europe is another prize for the company, which thinks that millions of people will put Disneyland at the top of a list of places to visit on their first trip to Western Europe.

新视野大学英语第四册Unit 9课文翻译

米老鼠有胡须吗?

这是不是说法国人要想在迪斯尼工作就必须剃掉胡子才行?

这得看情况了。

一位劳工问题督察员本周将迪斯尼公司告上了法庭,

他声称迪斯尼公司的着装规定──不准蓄胡须,不准体重超标,不准穿短裙和花哨的袜子──侵犯了个人自由,也违反了法国的劳工法。

迪斯尼公司正准备五个月后在巴黎以东20英里 (32公里) 的地方修建一个主题公园,而这一案例正说明了该公司面临的一些文化方面的棘手问题。

迪斯尼管理层正在组织一支他们称为"演职人员"的12,000人的队伍来管理这一主题公园。管理方说所有的雇员,从刷瓶工到总裁,都得和演员一样,服从关于仪表的规定。

公司发言人说,不管怎样,还没有人把胡子看得比工作还重要。

正如一个新来的"演职人员"所说:"你必须相信你这份工作的意义,不然的话日子不好过。"

然而人们怎样看待欧洲迪斯尼乐园呢?

各处的人们都想知道欧洲人是否会欢迎这种美国式的消遣活动。

尽管对外国文化的入侵感到不安,尽管要保护法语不受英语词汇的污染,法国的社会党政府对将这么大一个美国文化的象征放在首都门口却并不担忧,而是更多地关心其经济效果。

为了将这一主题公园留在这里,而不是建在阳光灿烂的西班牙,法国政府做出了税收和财政方面的一系列重大让步。

主题公园本身只不过是这一巨大综合项目的一部分。综合项目包括住房、办公楼,以及将一直延续到下一世纪、包括影视拍摄设施在内的度假胜地的开发。

作为与迪斯尼公司合作协议的一部分,政府正在铺设新的公路并支付建设款项,它是巴黎地区快速轨道交通的延伸,甚至可直接连接到通往英吉利海峡隧道的高速电气铁路(TGV)。

欧洲迪斯尼乐园的正门前正在建设高速电气铁路火车站,预定于1994年交付使用。

如果欧洲迪斯尼乐园获得成功──迄今为止在法国开设的主题公园都不成功──到本世纪末很可能会再建第二甚至第三个主题公园。

欧洲迪斯尼乐园的第一期工程预计将花费36亿美元,财政专家说欧洲迪斯尼乐园对迪斯尼的总体财富非常重要。迪斯尼在美国已遭遇到了竞争,游客量正在下降。

法国的知识分子们对这个项目并无好感,

然而孩子们却不管这些。

睡美人、白雪公主、彼得·潘和匹诺曹都是欧洲童话故事里的人物,这里的孩子对他们的熟悉程度丝毫不亚于美国的孩子。

在法国孩子眼里,米老鼠是法国人;在意大利孩子眼里,米老鼠是意大利人。

迪斯尼管理层强调这一传统,显然是对有人暗示迪斯尼管理层在文化传统方面麻木不仁的回应。

尽管主题公园这一概念是以加利福尼亚州的奇妙王国和佛罗里达州的沃尔特·迪斯尼世界为基础,但"欧洲迪斯尼乐园将具有适合于欧洲的独特风格。"迪斯尼公司说。

"主题公园的创新性建设突出地表现了欧洲的传说和童话故事。"

例如,公司的官员指出,睡美人的城堡,这一主题公园的中心建筑,不像一些人所想的那样是根据好莱坞的作品建造的,而是根据欧洲中世纪一本书中的插图而造的。

同样,根据儒勒·凡尔纳所写的冒险故事拍摄的360度环形电影是由著名的欧洲演员主演的。

当被问及还有什么其他措施来使主题公园更欧洲化时,一位发言人提到,公园的指示牌会用英语和法语,一些表演者会以法语、西班牙语和英语表演。

这位发言人说:"难的是要将人们已熟知的事说得让它听起来有所不同。"

而另一方面,主题公园也不会过分欧洲化。

迪斯尼的另一位发言人早些时候说主题公园的目的就是为那些追求美式生活的人带来基本上是美国式的体验。

他说,这样,那些本来考虑去美国度假的人留在大西洋的此岸也可以体验美国度假的快乐了。

迪斯尼公司似乎对须发特别在意。

它称将在欧洲迪斯尼乐园的中心"美国大道"建一个旧时的"和谐理发店"来处理"乱糟糟的头发和胡子拉碴的下巴",也许还要管管唇上髭须。

这一乐园与加利福尼亚和佛罗里达的乐园的一个不同之处是:这条"美国大道"的部分地区以及景点的等候区将会有遮棚,以对付巴黎的多雨天气。

欧洲迪斯尼乐园距巴黎不远,这肯定颇具吸引力。

任何厌倦了美式或仿欧式文化的人都可登上快速列车,不到一小时就可到达罗浮宫,一瞬间就从米尼老鼠身边来到《蒙娜·丽莎》面前。

在迪斯尼公司决定将其第四个主题公园选址于巴黎附近时,交通因素起了重要作用。

这里距3.2亿欧洲人不超过两小时飞行距离。

东欧的开放对迪斯尼来说又是一大收获,他们认为将有几百万人把迪斯尼乐园列入其首次西欧之旅的首选之地。

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