官方APP下载:英语全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英语学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
公众微信服务号
英语全能特训(微信公众服务号)
UNSV英语学习频道淘宝网店
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
初级VIP会员
全站英语学习资料下载。
¥98元/12个月

SCIENCE IN THE NEWS

阅读次数:


VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音 MP3节目录音  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

The Dutch scientists observe how birds called great tits act among each other. They compare the personalities of adult birds with those of baby birds. They also study the genetic material of the birds. This material decides how the birds will develop. It controls what they will be like. The scientists also are attempting to learn how personalities affect the survival of birds.

VOICE TWO:

Samuel Gosling teaches at the University of Texas. He says the Dutch scientists are producing the most detailed work ever done on the subject.

During the nineteen-nineties, Mister Gosling studied thirty-four hyenas at the University of California in Berkeley. The hyenas had four caretakers. Each caretaker, or keeper, answered questions about every animal. The keepers agreed about the personalities of the animals at about the same rate that people would describe other people.

The keepers described some things about the hyenas that seemed similar to humans. For example, they described some of the animals as agreeable. Others, they said, reacted with worry or even fearfulness to pressure.

VOICE ONE:

Photo courtesy Art Today

More recently, Mister Gosling studied dogs. He recently presented his findings to a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington, D.C. He noted that different kinds of dogs have different personalities. But he said there also are huge personality differences within each group, or breed.

Mister Gosling developed a test for people to learn about a dog's personality. He tested seventy-eight dogs. In his study, Mister Gosling asked dog owners to rate their animal on four kinds of personality. Then he asked strangers to describe the animals. The strangers rated the dogs on their levels of energy and ability to act loving, compared with aggressiveness. They also rated the dogs on nervousness compared with calmness and intelligence compared with stupidity.

VOICE TWO:

The owners and strangers generally agreed about the personality of each dog. Mister Gosling says this shows there are such things as dog personalities. He also said his studies suggest that people should own dogs with similar personalities.

His findings provide good news for owners of dogs of unpopular breeds. For example, pit bulls have been known to attack people. Many people think of this breed as too aggressive. But Mister Gosling's work shows that each animal may have its own personality.

VOICE ONE:

Mister Gosling says one of his new projects also will involve dogs. This time, the subjects will be dogs that search for explosives. It costs a lot of time and money to train such animals. However, some dogs cannot learn this skill. If more were known about an animal's personality, choosing dogs for the training could be improved.

Samuel Gosling says the main importance of studying animal personalities is that it permits learning not possible with human beings. He said the shorter lives of animals mean that many more lives and personalities can be studied in a shorter time.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

You are listening to SCIENCE IN THE NEWS, in VOA Special English. I'm Bob Doughty with Sarah Long in Washington.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

We recently received a message from a listener in China. Wang Feng would like to know if dogs dream when they sleep.

Studies show that dogs and human beings have similar brain activity when they sleep. Researchers use a test called an electroencephalogram to study such activity.

When dogs first go to sleep, they enter a period of light sleep. This is when they can be easily awakened. In light sleep, dogs lie still and their breathing is normal.

When dogs enter deep sleep, they have difficulty waking up. Brain wave activity greatly increases. Dogs begin unusual breathing. Rapid eye movement also begins. During rapid eye movement, the eyes are moving quickly, forward and backward. Then dogs may begin to make sounds. Their bodies may make uncontrolled movements. Their legs move as if they are running. It may seem as if the dog is having a bad dream. It is best not to wake a sleeping dog. Like people, dogs need continuous sleep for healthy mental activity.

VOICE ONE:

Researchers say dogs have several dreams each night. The amount of time spent sleeping is different with each animal. Most dogs sleep thirteen to fourteen hours a day.

Researchers also say small dogs dream more than large ones. The number of dreams each animal has also is linked to many things, including age. Young dogs dream more than adult dogs.

Many people wonder what their dogs are dreaming about. Researchers believe it is likely that dogs dream in a way similar to humans. They believe dogs dream of things that are pleasing to them, but unreal. They also say dogs dream of things that happen in everyday life, such as chasing things, playing and eating.

If you are wondering, cats dream, too.

Thanks to Wang Feng for that question. We would like to hear from you. Write us at Special English, Voice of America, Washington, D.C. two zero two three seven, U.S.A. Or send electronic mail messages to special@voanews.com.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This program was written by Lawan Davis, Ed Stautberg and Jerilyn Watson. Cynthia Kirk was our producer. I'm Bob Doughty.

VOICE ONE:

And I'm Sarah Long. Join us again next week for SCIENCE IN THE NEWS, in VOA Special English.

(MUSIC)

网友的学习评论(0条):
版权所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
网站备案:苏ICP备05000269号-1中国工业和信息化部网站备案查询
广播台